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Öl in Ghana

Beitragvon Birgitt » 17.06.2010 20:05

Ghanas schwarzes Gold
16.06.2010 - Deutsche Welle

Vor drei Jahren haben Wissenschaftler im Nordwesten Ghanas Öl entdeckt. Doch nach der Anfangs-Euphorie befürchten jetzt viele, dass Ghana zu einem zweiten Nigeria werden kann. Ein neues Gesetz soll davor schützen ... mehr

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Namibia - Öl kann ab 2015 sprudeln

Beitragvon Birgitt » 07.07.2011 20:45

Explorationsboom stärkt Hoffnung auf Schwarzes Gold – 12 Mrd. Barrel erwartet
07.07.2011 - AZ online

Die Wahrscheinlichkeit ist hoch, dass Namibia ab 2015 ein ölförderndes Land ist. Diese Vision wird von seismischen Daten sowie enormen Explorationsaktivitäten in den nächsten 18 Monaten gestärkt. Vor der Küste erwartet man rund zwölf Milliarden Barrel Öl (1 Barrel = 159 Liter) ... mehr

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Uganda muss vor seinem Öl geschützt werden

Beitragvon Birgitt » 13.07.2011 11:29

Uganda muss vor seinem Öl geschützt werden

11.07.2011 - Epoch Times

Wenn die Volkswirtschaften von der Rohstoffindustrie übermäßig abhängig werden, steigen die Wechselkurse und machen die Einfuhren so billig, dass die lokalen Produzenten unterboten werden, bekannt als die „holländische Krankheit“ ... mehr

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Beitragvon schu achbar ? » 13.07.2011 12:14

Kurz überflogen, ein paar Aussagen des Autors am Beispiel Nigeria überprüft.

Keine Partizipitation an den Exporten ?

Bev. Zahl 124 Mill in 2000
Bev. Zahl 155 Mill. in 2011

Schon eine gewaltige Zunahme.
Für die 30 Jahre davor kann man es sich nur denken.

Trotzdem BIP per capita

970 US $ in 2000
2100 US $ in 2008 bereits

Harte Währung durch nondiversifizierte, Rohstoff-ausfuhrlastige Wirtschaft ?
Stimmt das ?
http://www.onvista.de/devisen/snapshot. ... D=7#chart1
schu achbar ?

Öl in Uganda - Lake Albert Basin

Beitragvon Birgitt » 21.10.2011 19:59

IRIN hat geschrieben:Analysis: Rocky start for Uganda's burgeoning oil sector
14.10.2011 - IRIN

Uganda has yet to produce a single barrel of oil, but with three senior ministers accused of accepting bribes from oil companies and the government seemingly ill-prepared for imminent large-scale oil production, the phrase "resource curse" is already being bandied about.

Prime Minister Amama Mbabazi has been accused of receiving funds to lobby for oil production rights on behalf of the Italian oil firm ENI, which eventually lost its bid for exploration rights to British firm Tullow Oil. Along with Mbabazi, Foreign Affairs Minister Sam Kutesa and Internal Affairs Minister for Internal Affairs Hilary Onek are both accused of taking bribes from Tullow Oil worth over US$23 million and $8 million respectively.

The ministers and Tullow Oil deny all the allegations, but MPs on 11 October demanded the ministers' resignations and formed an ad hoc parliamentary committee to investigate them; Kutesa has now stepped aside from his ministerial position to allow investigations into separate charges of abuse of office and causing financial loss relating to the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting held in Uganda in 2007.

Oil exploration began in Uganda's northwestern Lake Albert basin nearly a decade ago; the Energy Ministry estimates the country has over two billion barrels of oil; Tullow operates three oil blocks in the region, and had sold off part of its stake to Total and China's CNOOC. However, following the allegations of bribery, parliament has halted the sale.

The revelations of possible large-scale graft have caused outrage in the population. The discovery of oil had given hope to a country that despite more than 25 years of relative stability, remains poor. The UN Development Programme reports [ http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/UGA.html ] that 51 percent of the population lives below the poverty line.

"We were so excited when we heard about oil, we knew we would at least get roads, better electricity supply and better hospitals but now it seems that, as usual, all the money is going into the pockets of a few," said Asuman Kasule, a taxi driver in the capital, Kampala.

No regulatory framework

Analysts say that while the allegations of corruption are troubling and must be addressed, Uganda has bigger problems when it comes to its nascent oil industry. Oil production is due to begin as early as 2013, but the country has not put in place a regulatory framework for the oil industry; the existing legislation on oil and gas exploration was passed in 1993, and analysts say it is not sufficient to deal with the current dynamics.

In addition, the country has not put in place measures to ensure transparency, inclusion of local communities, revenue management and the mitigation of environmental damage. A 2008 National Oil and Gas Policy [ http://www.acode-u.org/documents/oildoc ... policy.pdf ] was intended as a road map for the handling and use of the oil, but critics say many of its recommendations have not been followed.

"As of today, Uganda does not have an oil revenue management framework," Richard Businge, senior manager at International Alert, a peace and conflict NGO, told IRIN. "Government's argument is that the country has sufficient income and tax laws, which is not necessarily the case because the oil industry is a unique one, which requires a more specific revenue management law. The oil development process has been shrouded in secrecy, breeding confusion and suspicion."


Parliamentarians say oil production sharing agreements dating as far back as 2001 were only shared with them in September 2011. Attorney-General Peter Nyombi Thembo has said the agreements contain confidentiality clauses that prevent the government and parliament from disclosing their contents to third parties.

During a heated debate on 11 October, parliament passed a resolution banning confidentiality clauses in any future oil contracts with foreign companies.

"A lot has gone on in the oil industry without the knowledge of the Ugandan public, and a lot is still going on," Tony Otoa, a researcher with Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment (ACODE), a public policy think-tank, told IRIN. "This sort of secrecy - which covered up patronage, corruption - is what preceded the problems Nigeria had in the early stages of its industry."

Otoa said it would be crucial for Uganda to join international mechanisms for transparency in the oil and gas sector such as the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), [ http://eiti.org ] an international scheme that attempts to set a global standards for transparency in oil, gas and mining. Implementation of EITI would mean regular, accessible publication of all payments by oil companies to governments and all revenues received by governments from oil companies. The National Oil and Gas Policy recommends that Uganda participate in EITI.

Another such mechanism is Publish What You Pay (PWYP), an international network of civil society organizations that call for oil, gas and mining revenues to form the basis for development and improve the lives of ordinary citizens in resource-rich countries.

"The oil industry is still young, but payments in the millions of dollars have already been made to the government in signing bonuses, licensing fees and so on, but the government has so far been unwilling to share the amounts that have been paid nor the way the money has been spent," said Winfred Ngabiirwe, of PWYP's Uganda chapter. "There has been some flip-flopping by the government on whether it will join EITI, but so far there has been no firm commitment."

Local communities

Ngabiirwe said transparency and open revenue management would be key to ensuring that the local populations in the oil producing areas were able to benefit from the proceeds of the production and lift themselves out of poverty. "As it is, the local populations are not really informed of their rights and we are often blocked by politicians from visiting these areas to enlighten them," she said.

In the areas where PWYP has been allowed to operate, they have set up grassroots chapters of the organization to allow communities to understand and communicate their needs and demand that the oil revenues be used for the development of their areas.

"It's true that fishing and farming have been interrupted; some communities... have been asked to relocate while others... were notified to prepare to leave," said International Alert's Businge. "The compensation given to them is inadequate - this is determined by government - while those who have to put up with oil activity have to regulate their activities either on farm or on lake. Most of the corporate social responsibility work that companies are doing to kind of buy the `social ticket' is on infrastructure development and not necessarily responsive to key pressing survival needs of the local communities."

According to a study [ http://mak.ac.ug/documents/EPRCUDICPaper.pdf ] by Uganda's Makerere University on managing oil expectations, local communities have "expressed hope that oil revenues will result in a better road and railway network, high quality education and health care, a regional technical and university infrastructure, and considerable employment opportunities". However, the study also found that local communities were not involved in the drafting of the National Oil and Gas Policy and were not informed of the oil companies' activities in their region.

And according to ACODE's Otoa, while it is important for parliament to go after corrupt individuals, it is equally important that they stand up for the rights of local communities and urge environmental caution.

Getting prepared

"Our parliamentarians are largely uninformed about the oil sector, so we regularly hold workshops to try and ensure that when the time comes for them to debate an oil bill, they are aware of the key issues that need to be taken into consideration," he said. "Bodies like the National Environment Management Authority also need their capacity boosted, because they too are inexperienced in the type of environmental damage caused by the oil industry."

Another important area, according to Henry Banyenzaki, minister for economic monitoring, would be ensuring that Ugandans are trained and employed in various aspects of the oil industry, and that local businesses are geared towards supplying the oil industry.

"We are not moving as fast as we should in government because of bureaucracy, but we need to prepare the private sector as well so that they can get the maximum benefit from the industry," he said.

Banyenzaki said the government would need to ensure that other key resources - including agriculture and tourism - did not suffer as a result of the focus on oil, a concept known as "Dutch disease".

"Uganda's oil wealth can be transformational for Uganda's economy but this largely depends on how well it is managed... [but] in the absence of proper revenue management and critical forward thinking, the exploitation of oil does not necessarily translate into sustainable socio-economic transformation," said Businge.

Quelle: IRIN

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Öl in Kenia - Turkana Region

Beitragvon Birgitt » 31.05.2012 20:07

IRIN hat geschrieben:
KENYA: Oil, hope and fear
29.05.2012 - IRIN

LODWAR-LOKICHAR - Although just a few hundred kilometres from Nairobi, the county of Turkana, where newly-confirmed oil reserves are set to go on stream in the next few years, feels more like a million miles away from the gleaming skyscrapers and concentrations of power and money found in Kenya's capital.

Residents of Lokichar, the closest settlement to the viable oil concession, speak of "Kenya" as if it were an entirely different country and of "Kenyans" - or "the people with long trousers" - as if they were foreigners.

Turkana's socioeconomic indicators do indeed set it apart. More than 96 percent of its predominantly pastoralist population are categorized as poor, the highest proportion in the country. Turkana also trails near the bottom of national leagues in terms of employment, literacy and healthcare spending. [ http://www.irinnews.org/In-depth/87469/83/ ]

Only 39 percent of the youth aged 15-18 in Turkana attend school, compared to the national average of 70.9 percent. [ http://kenya.usaid.gov/sites/default/fi ... 202012.pdf ]

Can oil, coupled with an unprecedented process of political devolution enshrined in a new constitution, reverse Turkana's fortunes?

In Lodwar, the region's main town, where the principal economic activity has long been basket-weaving, there are few positive signs.

Among the new businesses springing up is the Ngamia-1 Mobile Phone Repair
Shop, named after the promising oil well. There are also several new hotels, guest houses and restaurants.

Formerly half-empty flights to Lodwar now tend to be fully booked.


As climate change, cattle-raiding and agricultural development erode the viability and attraction of the pastoralist livelihood, many in Turkana hope some of their most pressing needs will soon be met.

"Until recently many people did not know what oil as a resource means. Most of them were asking if water could instead be drilled for them," said Lokichar resident Robert Kamaro.

"The government needs to build schools for our children, drill boreholes. We believe that we will benefit, especially the vulnerable," Simon Esekwen, who lives close to Lokichar, told IRIN.

Lodwar resident and doctor Lawrence Lomuria said the oil find was an opportunity for the Turkana people to embrace education. "We do not need to fear education; this can act as a motivator for the Turkana to study and to do well."

"Oil is being seen as a ladder to help the people go up," said Christopher Ekaru Loskipat, coordinator of the Catholic Peace and Justice Commission (CPJC) in Lodwar.

"When the companies come here, the local people expect employment. If this is not done, we are anticipating conflict. What will the government trickle down as the benefit to the community?" he asked.

"We are happy with the oil find," Lokichar resident Lokapel Katilu told IRIN. "We pray that the find is real. We are just idle, there is no work. We just walk around. Before, we would rely on grazing, but the herds have been stolen."

One young resident, who left school before completing his primary education, said: "We understand that we have limited skills, but we would want all those casual jobs given to us."

No jobs bonanza

But according to oil industry analyst Antony Goldman, no major jobs bonanza is on the horizon.

"Typically oil is capital- rather than labour-intensive: unlike mining, it does not yield many unskilled or semi-skilled jobs," he told IRIN.

"In the case of an inland discovery, there may be pipeline construction jobs, and oil does bring - in the boom period of expansion - a range of opportunities in the service sector... The question is the extent to which indigenous communities can compete for any but the most basic tasks," added Goldman, a director of Promedia Consulting, a London-based risk analysis consultancy.

Katilu said that to date he knew of only a few people who had found oil-related work, "to control traffic and to prevent people from accessing the rig site".

Lokichar resident Kamaro said there was a widespread fear that lack of local skills would "lead to people from Kenya coming in" to the area.

People here "are afraid of an influx of foreigners, that there will be congestion, that the foreigners will bring diseases, that their culture will be polluted," said Kamaro.

Others have warned that any oil rush could lead to a rise in crime, prostitution and sexual exploitation of minors.

Child protection challenges

"The coming of oil to an `illiterate' community will mean an influx of expertise and money and in exchange maybe there will be child protection challenges," warned Eunice Majuma Wasike, a children's officer with the Catholic Diocese of Lodwar.

"If we can empower the community to know about child protection, have legal officers to take up cases pro-bono, have rescue centres in place, then this would help us in addressing the potential protection challenges."

For Joseph Elim, coordinator of Riam Riam, a local NGO, "there is a need to manage people's expectations. Information should be unpacked and the people mobilized to receive information, and feedback collected and monitored."

"I heard some people ask, `What will happen to pastoralists?' or `Will they deport us to Sudan?' There is a need for information to counter the alarmists. The people are saying: `We do not want people with long trousers coming here because they have colluded with those who have sold the land'," he added.

These attitudes chime with Goldman's analysis that in the longer term the real impact of the oil find will be on "land prices and government revenue... The challenge for the industry in Kenya will be to develop an inclusive strategy that benefits all stakeholders," he said.

Patrick Imana, an official with the Agency for Pastoralist Development (APaD), another local NGO, put it more bluntly: "Will we see militias like in Nigeria or the elite looting oil riches?"

Mindful of the "resource curse" risks that have plagued other African countries with major oil reserves, the Kenyan government has professed its commitment to [ http://www.energy.go.ke/?page_id=580 ] ensuring "natural resources should generate long-term economic and social benefits for the country and in particular for the host communities."

"This will involve reviewing the existing legal and regulatory framework to conform to best international practice and to align it with the new constitutional dispensation," the Ministry of Energy adds on its website.

There are hopes that the new constitution, adopted with overwhelming public support in 2010, will help reverse decades of marginalization and check the endemic corruption that continues to pervade the highest echelons of power in Nairobi. (In Transparency International's 2011 corruption index, Kenya was ranked 154 out of 182 countries, i.e. near the bottom).

"Devolution will help to remove fear. We will have a county assembly in Lodwar," said APAD's Imana. "We need a vibrant county assembly with civil society activists to take the government to task," he added.

Title deeds

People in Turkana are also worried about being left out of any appreciation of land prices that are likely to arise from development of the oil field. Land in the county is communally owned, and managed by the county council.

"When the oil was found, people started saying, `Now we are in Kenya, good things are coming out of this place'. But coming from a pastoral community that did not attach monetary value to land, now [they wonder]: `What about this whole mass of land that investors are going to be interested in'?" explained Riam Riam's Elim.

"Here we do not have title deeds, people live without documents," said the CPJC's Loskipat.

"The situation will be threatening for those without land documents and some people may capitalize on this. There is a possibility that at the end of the day the vulnerable will easily give away their land or sell it at throwaway prices," he said.

Others fear that the Turkana people's closest neighbours and historical resource-conflict adversaries, the Pokot, may also try to claim land near the oil installations.

"There is a need for security to protect us from the hostile communities around us," warned Elim, noting that the region was awash with small arms.

"We need to wake up from the slumber [delusion] that if the people are attacked, it is [just] their culture, or a normal conflict around water and pasture: oil will raise the stakes," he added.

And for some, the very concept of individual land ownership is as alien as the "men in long trousers". "How can you sell soil?" asked one young man in Lokichar.

Quelle: IRIN

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Öl im Kongo - Virunga NP und Salonga Park

Beitragvon Birgitt » 30.06.2018 17:59

In den Nationalparks im Kongo leben vom Aussterben bedrohte Arten wie Berggorillas - trotzdem soll dort nach Öl gebohrt werden. Naturschützer sind entsetzt, die Regierung verteidigt ihre Pläne ...

Die Parks sind wegen ihres einzigartigen Ökosystems UNESCO-Welterbestätten. Im östlichen Virunga-Nationalpark soll demnach ein Fünftel der Fläche freigegeben werden. Auch im zentralen Salonga-Park sollen Ölbohrungen erlaubt werden. Dieser Park gilt als eines der größten Regenwaldschutzgebiete der Welt [...] Naturschützer warnen vor negativen Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt, die Luft und die dort lebenden Tiere. Besonders im Virunga-Nationalpark gibt es nach Angaben von Experten eine große Artenvielfalt - ein großer Teil der vom Aussterben bedrohten Berggorillas lebt dort. Der Salonga-Park ist Heimat unter anderem von Zwergschimpansen. Die Regierung im Kongo verteidigte die Ölbohrungen. Man habe das Recht dazu, überall im Land solche Arbeiten zu genehmigen.

Kongo will Ölbohrungen erlauben
30.06.2018 - tagesschau

Wenn ich das wieder lese, wird mir schwindlig. Diese Woche war ich auf einer Veranstaltung mit Dirk Steffens. Ihr kennt ihn sicher, Terra X. Der Naturfilmer. 90 Minuten hat er referiert über den "Living Planet Report" - wieviel Erde braucht der Mensch. Derzeit braucht er 1,6 Erden. Ok, die Erde hatte evtl. ein paar Zinsen angehäuft und Mensch kann etwas aus dem Vollen schöpfen. Aber ewig können wir - was unsere Erde angeht - nicht über unsere Verhältnisse leben. Das ist wie mit dem Girokonto. Ständig überzogen, sind wir irgendwann pleite. Es kann nicht unendlich lange gut gehen!

Meine Bitte an alle von euch: kämpft für unsere Erde! Wir brauchen nicht wieder wie in der Steinzeit leben, das erwartet niemand. Aber man kann viel tun auch mit kleinen Dingen. Viele kleine zunächst vielleicht unbedeutende Dinge täglich summieren sich !!! Vielleicht kann man sich auch selber öfters mal hinterfragen, beispielsweise ob es denn wirklich jedes Jahr ein neues Smartphone sein muss ...

In diesem Zusammenhang auch nochmals mein Appell an alle Wüstenschiffer, unser Wasser zu retten. Unterzeichnet mit, dass unser Trinkwasser nicht in die Hände von Großkonzernen gerät! :arrow: Wasserprivatisierung verhindern - JEFTA stoppen !

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