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DR Kongo - Unruhen im Osten der DRC

Kultur, Natur, Unterkunft, Reiserouten, Sehenswürdigkeiten, Tourismus
Staaten: Äquatorial Guinea, Gabun, Republik Kongo, Demokratische Republik Kongo, Uganda, Kenia, Burundi, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Ruanda, Madagaskar, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, Malawi, Südafrika, Swaziland, Lesotho, São Tomé, Príncipe

Moderatoren: Alexander, Birgitt, Moderatorengruppe

Kongo DRC - M23-Rebellen nehmen Goma ein

Beitragvon Birgitt » 20.11.2012 20:58

Fighters from the M23 rebel group have captured Goma, the main city in resource-rich eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The rebels met little resistance from the army or UN peacekeepers. The leaders of DR Congo and Rwanda, Joseph Kabila and Paul Kagame, flew to Uganda for talks, amid claims that Rwanda was backing the rebels. France called for the UN Security Council to strengthen the peacekeepers' mandate to intervene in the conflict. It was "absurd" that the UN force could not stop the rebels, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said. Mr Kabila called on people to "resist" the rebels.

Goma: M23 rebels capture DR Congo city
20.11.2012 - BBC

Die Rebellen der Miliz M23 sind fast ungehindert in die Millionenstadt Goma im Osten des Kongo eingedrungen. Nachdem zuvor noch heftig gekämpft worden war, fielen nach Angaben von Augenzeugen nur noch vereinzelt Schüsse. Die Einwohner von Goma fürchten nun Morde und Plünderungen.

Rebellen nehmen Provinzhauptstadt Goma ein
20.11.2012 - tagesschau

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DR Kongo - Der Fall von Goma

Beitragvon Birgitt » 21.11.2012 22:52

When the provincial capital of Goma in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo fell to rebel forces today, the rapidity of the rebel advance was shocking, but the fait accompli failure of both Congo's armed forces and the country's United Nations mission was not.

The Fall of Goma
20.11.2012 - Huffington Post

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DR Kongo - Von Goma nach Kinshasa ?

Beitragvon Birgitt » 21.11.2012 23:29

Nach der Einnahme der Stadt Goma im Ostkongo durch die Rebellenmiliz M23 hat der UN-Sicherheitsrat Sanktionen gegen deren Anführer verlangt. Die Rebellen drohten mit dem Vormarsch auf Kinshasa. Und die UN-Truppen im Land warten ab - sie wollen nicht in den Bürgerkrieg hineingezogen werden. Tausende Menschen haben sich im Stadion in Goma versammelt. In der Mitte stehen die Anführer der M23. Die Rebellengruppe hatte gestern die Provinzhauptstadt im Osten des Kongo eingenommen. Jetzt hat sie größere Pläne. "Wollt ihr, dass wir hier stoppen? Oder sollen wir weiter marschieren?“, fragt der Sprecher der Rebellen. Ein großer Teil der Menge jubelt. Polizisten, die auch ins Stadion gekommen sind, geben ihre Waffen ab. Die M23 bestand erst nur aus ein paar hundert Kämpfern. Jetzt wird ihre Zahl schon auf 2500 geschätzt. Nach Aussage der Rebellen schließen sich jeden Tag mehr frühere Regierungssoldaten oder Polizisten an.

Rebellen kündigen Vormarsch auf Kinshasa an
21.11.2012 - tagesschau

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Interview zur Krise im Ostkongo mit Christoph Vogel

Beitragvon Birgitt » 22.11.2012 23:09

Der Ostkongo wird seit Jahren mit Gewalt überzogen. Die Ursache dafür liege vor allem in ethnischen Konflikten, sagt der Politologe Christoph Vogel. Im Interview mit tagesschau.de erklärt er zudem, warum die UNO in der Region gescheitert ist - und welche undurchsichtige Rolle Ruanda in dem Konflikt spielt.

Zwischen schwierigen Nachbarn und hilflosen Helfern
22.11.2012 - tagesschau

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Kongo DRC - Nach Eroberung von Goma

Beitragvon Birgitt » 24.11.2012 12:55

Anfang der Woche eroberten die Rebellen im Kongo die Stadt Goma. Die selbsternannte "Revolutionäre Armee des Kongo" gibt sich als Befreier. Doch laut einem UN-Bericht sind sie auch für Morde und Vergewaltigungen verantwortlich. Ein Ende der Kämpfe ist nicht in Sicht [...] Viele sind geflohen. Bis zur Grenze nach Ruanda sind es nur ein paar Kilometer. Die Zurückgebliebenen zeigen sich schicksalsergeben. "Wir werden jeden unterstützen, der uns Frieden bringt", sagt Motorradtaxi-Fahrer John. "Egal ob es die M23-Kämpfer sind oder andere."

Rebellen im Kongo feiern sich als Befreier
24.11.2012 - tagesschau

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Konflikt im Osten Kongos

Beitragvon Birgitt » 25.11.2012 21:29

Die Regierung der Demokratischen Republik Kongo erhält im Kampf gegen Aufständische diplomatische Rückendeckung anderer Länder der Region. Die Rebellen müssten sämtliche kriegerischen Handlungen einstellen, forderten mehrere afrikanische Staatschefs und Regierungsvertreter nach einem Krisentreffen. Sie waren in der ugandischen Hauptstadt Kampala zusammengekommen, um angesichts der andauernden Gewalt nach einer Lösung des Konflikts zu suchen. Sie forderten die Rebellen auf, aus der kürzlich eroberten Stadt Goma abzuziehen.

Staatschefs fordern Rebellen zum Rückzug au
24.11.2012 - tagesschau

Etwa 100.000 Menschen sind in den vergangenen Wochen vor den Kämpfen zwischen Regierungssoldaten und Rebellen im Kongo geflohen. Rund um die Provinzhauptstadt Goma beginnt nun die Verteilung von Nahrungsmitteln. Doch die Versorgung der Flüchtlinge ist schwierig.

"Wir mussten um unser Leben laufen"
24.11.2012 - tagesschau

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DR Kongo - Uganda in neuen Krieg verwickelt?

Beitragvon Birgitt » 12.01.2013 19:29

Die Demokratische Republik Kongo ist Schauplatz eines neu entflammten Krieges. Tief verwickelt in den Konflikt ist auch das benachbarte Uganda. Die Verbindung zwischen beiden Ländern ist historisch zu erklären. Deutschland hat seine Budgethilfe für Uganda seit Beginn des Jahres 2013 eingefroren. Der Minister für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung, Dirk Niebel, begründete diese Entscheidung unter anderem mit dem jüngst erschienenen UN-Sicherheitsbericht. Darin wird Uganda angeklagt, in den Krieg in der Demokratischen Republik Kongo verwickelt zu sein.

Ugandas verdeckte Rolle im Kongo
04.01.2013 - DW World

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Bruderkrieg im Osten Kongos

Beitragvon Birgitt » 18.03.2013 23:45

Die ostkongolesische Rebellenbewegung M23 (Bewegung des 23. März) hat sich gespalten. M23-Militärführer Sultani Makenga erklärte in einer in der Nacht zum Donnerstag verbreiteten Erklärung M23-Präsident Jean-Marie Runiga für abgesetzt. Als Begründung nannte Makenga in der von ihm im Namen des „Hohen Militärrates“ der M23 unterzeichneten Erklärung Runigas „Unfähigkeit, eine allgemeine politische Orientierung zu bieten" sowie „Abzweigung der finanziellen Ressourcen der Bewegung zur Unterstützung illegaler und verbotener Aktivitäten“. Außerdem habe Runiga den vom Internationalen Strafgerichtshof mit Haftbefehl gesuchten ehemaligen Armeegeneral Bosco Ntaganda aufgenommen.

M23-Rebellen gespalten
28.02.2013 - taz

Fighting erupted between two factions of Congo's M23 rebels near the eastern town of Goma on Thursday after one side said it sent men to arrest a leader of the other, Bosco Ntaganda, who is wanted on international war-crimes charges. M23's military command said its political coordinator Jean-Marie Runiga had been sacked for backing Ntaganda, highlighting divisions that threaten regional efforts to end two decades of conflict in the restive borderlands zone of central Africa.

Congo rebels clash near Goma
01.03.2013 - iol

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Milizen in Masisi

Beitragvon Birgitt » 18.03.2013 23:45

IRIN hat geschrieben:
Briefing: Militias in Masisi
06.03.2013 - IRIN

MASISI - The process of integrating armed groups into the Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) army, FARDC, has stalled again amid heavy fighting at a base where hundreds of combatants had assembled.

The clashes, which started in Kitchanga, North Kivu Province, could jeopardize community reconciliation across much of the province's Masisi territory, which saw outbreaks of ethnic violence in 2012.

In this briefing, IRIN looks at armed group integration and community pacification in eastern DRC and asks how these processes might develop in Masisi and elsewhere in the region.

What has happened in Kitchanga?

Heavy fighting broke out on 24 February between FARDC and the Alliance of Patriots for a Free and Sovereign Congo (APCLS) militia, and continued until 27 February. It broke out again on March 3; as of 5 March, at least 70 people had been killed and thousands displaced from their homes.

Between 500 and 700 APCLS combatants are believed to have been in Kitchanga, alongside a regiment of about 1,000 FARDC soldiers. The combatants had been sent by their commander, Janvier Bwingo Karairi, who was negotiating with the army over the possible integration of his forces.

UN Radio says discussions broke down over the murder of an APCLS officer and attempts by the APCLS to attack ethnic Tutsi living in a displacement camp, who they alleged were hiding weapons. A witness to the fighting, Samson Ndako, said many houses in Kitchanga were burned as the fighters targeted each other's communities. The APCLS are largely ethnic Hunde, and many soldiers in the town are Hutu or Tutsi.

Most of the town's estimated 120,000 inhabitants have fled towards Tongo in the northwest.

Why are these latest clashes significant?

There is fighting between the FARDC and armed groups in many parts of DRC, but Masisi is a key area for political and strategic reasons. Tensions within this densely populated territory have repeatedly sparked or fuelled wars.

The area straddles an ethnic fault line between Banyarwanda people, who have Rwandan ancestry and include the Hutu and Tutsi, and other so-called "indigenous" communities, such as the Hunde, Nyanga, Tembo and Nande.

In 2012, the violence [ http://www.irinnews.org/report/96392/DR ... isi-crisis ] in Masisi was worse than at any time since the 1990s, contributing to the displacement of up to half a million people in North Kivu.

That violence died down in December, when Hutu, Hunde and other armed groups agreed to a ceasefire. There was even a plan for APCLS's Janvier to take command of other armed groups and shepherd them into a mass integration into the army. That idea may now be shelved or abandoned.

Masisi is also at the frontline of the stand-off with the M23 rebels, who control most the neighbouring territory of Rutshuru.

What is the risk of a return to ethnic violence in Masisi?

The fighting in Kitchanga is not simply Hunde versus Hutu and Tutsi. Oxfam worker Eddy Mbuyi told IRIN that elements of the Rwandan, Hutu-dominated rebel Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda(FDLR) have been siding with the APCLS, and other local Hutu militias appear to be neutral. Still, he said, there is virtually an ethnic war in Kitchanga, and it threatens to spread.

Yet progress towards reconciling Hutu, Hunde and other communities has been made in recent months. Since December 2012, at least three large pacification meetings have been held in the territory. The Jesuit Refugee Service described a meeting on 5 February at Masisi Centre as "historic" - it was the first time hundreds of Hunde and Hutu combatants had met at such a gathering.

The leaders of the APCLS and of the Hutu Force for the Defence of Human Rights (FDDH) militias were present at that meeting, and in an apparently strong gesture of solidarity, FDDH coordinator Emmanuel Munyariba said the FDDH would take orders from APCLS's Janvier.

However, that solidarity may have been conditional on good relations with the army (Munyamariba is also a local police chief), and the FDDH is not the only Hutu militia, nor is it united - three groups call themselves FDDH. In a recent Rift Valley Institute report [ http://rvi.asilialtd.com/download/file/fid/1121 ], Congo expert Jason Stearns [ http://congosiasa.blogspot.com/ ] referred to 15 mostly Hutu splinter militias in the neighbouring territory of Kalehe.

Reconciliation has a long way to go in the villages. The NGO Concern found some villages in Masisi still empty, and many formerly ethnically mixed villages are now inhabited by only one ethnic group. Forty-five percent of the villagers Concern interviewed said they had only just returned after fleeing the recent violence, and many remain displaced.

Notably absent from pacification meetings were representatives of the Tutsi community. The research head for the North Kivu Civil Society Association, Djento Maundu, said this was a major reason some community chiefs have not attended the meetings.

There is a serious risk of armed groups banding together against the Tutsi, who are widely blamed for the M23 rebellion [ http://www.irinnews.org/report/95715/DR ... -group-M23 ] although many Tutsi have died fighting alongside the rebels. Most of the M23's senior officers are Tutsi, as are many generals in FARDC who were integrated into the army after fighting for Rwandan-backed rebel movements.

Some complain that past peace agreements have given the Tutsi too much power, and that they are using it to defend their large land holdings and dominant role in the economy.

Hunde elder and APCLS spokesman Kingi Mbayo told IRIN on March 4 that the APCLS is not against the Tutsi, and has some Tutsi in its ranks, including "Colonel" Philemon. He also said Tutsi ranches have not come under attack in the past year, which appears to be true.

But he added that many Tutsi who claim to be Congolese refugees, whose return to their land is one of the M23's demands, are not genuine Congolese, and called for more pressure on the Congolese and Rwandan governments to address this issue.

APCLS spokesman Jannot Makale Kale told IRIN on 4 March that the group would not leave Kitchanga but was willing to coexist there with FARDC, which it still regards as its ally.

Where has this left the army integration process?

In 2012, the UN Stabilization Mission in DRC (MONUSCO) reported that there were at least 31 armed groups in eastern DRC. The only large militia to integrate into the army since 2009 was the Hutu Nyatura, a group of around 1,000 fighters, now known as the Tango Four regiment. MONUSCO has a list of 12 groups in North Kivu that have been in integration talks.

MONUSCO lists nine of the armed groups in North Kivu as pro-FARDC and only four as pro-M23. But the list considers APCLS a pro-FARDC group, so it may need updating. Even so, the APCLS's hostility to the Tutsi means an alliance with the M23 is unlikely.

The M23 is believed to include some 3,000 fighters, while the Congolese army may have deployed some 20,000 against them. The other armed groups in North Kivu cumulatively have several thousand fighters.

Without significant armed support, the M23 will have difficulty advancing far from the Rwandan border. The proposed deployment of drones [ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/20 ... 93957.html ] to monitor the border will put them under further pressure.

The M23 also has serious internal divisions. Two M23 factions, one led by Bosco Ntaganda and the other by Sultani Makenga, were fighting at the end of last month, allowing FARDC and allies to move into the M23 zone before withdrawing again on March 3.

The armed groups that MONUSCO lists as pro-M23 are generally smaller than the pro-FARDC groups, so the odds seemed to be stacked against the movement. By June, it could also be facing a possible reinforcement of MONUSCO - which has some 17,000 peacekeepers - by a South African Development Community-led neutral international force of up to 4,000 soldiers with a more robust mandate.

Where next for integration and pacification?

Spokesmen for armed groups like the APCLS, FDDH and Movement of Action for Change (MAC) have told IRIN that the reason they have not yet joined the army is because it has been infiltrated by the M23. There is widespread suspicion that Tutsi officers within FARDC are M23 sympathizers, and militia members will be reluctant to join the army if they think the senior ranks are dominated by a hostile community.

Meanwhile, government negotiations with the M23 have been ongoing since December. The government is trying to avoid reintegrating senior M23 officers; it has offered to reintegrate all ranks up to major and to treat colonels and above on a case-by-case basis, offering some of them "retirement packages". MONUSCO supports this position.

If a deal is reached with the M23, the army might try to deal with the region's other armed groups by force, with the help of MONUSCO. A military source said the SADC-led troops would probably conduct some operations against the FDLR, some of whose core leadership was involved in the 1994 Rwandan genocide.

In a letter published on 12 February, 19 mostly international NGOs called for "non-military solutions to [the] conflict. based on the failure so far of military action to fully address the presence of non-state armed groups and the negative impact of such action on the civilian population".

But militia commanders' ambitions may not be limited to integration in the army. For instance, the territory of APCLS's Janvier's is rich in high-grade cassiterite, which has been largely unexploited.

Researcher Maundu suggests that a key to peace could be establishing which people are the real stakeholders in the mines, and then encouraging the mines' exploitation by demobilized militias.


Quelle: IRIN

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DRC - M 23 - Ntaganda nach Ruanda geflohen

Beitragvon Birgitt » 18.03.2013 23:48

Congolese rebels loyal to warlord Bosco Ntaganda have fled into neighbouring Rwanda or surrendered to United Nations peacekeepers after being routed by a rival faction, rebel and U.N. sources said on Saturday. Ntaganda's apparent defeat comes after weeks of infighting within the M23 insurgency and could open the way for rival rebel leader Sultani Makenga to sign a peace deal with Kinshasa, bringing an end to a year-long rebellion in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Rebel spokesman Vianney Kazarama said Makenga's fighters seized control of the town of Kibumba, 30 km (19 miles) north of Goma, capital of mineral-rich North Kivu province, early on Saturday. Ntaganda and an estimated 200 fighters fled into the forest while others crossed the border into Rwanda, Kazarama said. At least seven fighters were killed.

Congolese rebels surrender, flee
16.03.2013 - New Vision

[youtube2]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDRHfBUV40g[/youtube2]
Fugitive M23 leader Ntaganda 'in Rwanda'
18.03.2013 - Al Jazeera

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Kongo DRC - Rebellenführer Ntaganda flüchtet in US-Botschaft

Beitragvon Birgitt » 18.03.2013 23:54

Der mit internationalem Haftbefehl gesuchte mutmaßliche Kriegsverbrecher und Rebellenführer Bosco Ntaganda aus dem Kongo hat in der US-Botschaft in Kigali in Ruanda Zuflucht gesucht. Das teilte die ruandische Außenministerin Louise Mushikiwabo mit. Das US-Außenministerium in Washington erklärte, dass Ntaganda an den Internationalen Strafgerichtshof überstellt werden wolle. "Wir arbeiten derzeit mit einigen Regierungen daran, darunter der ruandischen Regierung, um seine Bitte zu ermöglichen", sagte Außenamtssprecherin Victoria Nuland.

Der "Terminator" flüchtet in US-Botschaft
18.03.2013 - tagesschau

The big question: Why would someone so powerful voluntarily give himself up to the ICC, which is likely to sentence him to many years in jail? We don’t know the answer right now. Maybe we’ll find out later today, maybe not for months, maybe not forever. But here, if for no other reason than to help understand the dynamics at play, are some of the theories being tossed around by Central Africa watchers. To be clear, these are just theories, but worth considering.

Why did infamous war criminal Bosco Ntaganda just surrender at a U.S. embassy?
18.03.2013 - Washington Post

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DRC - M 23 - Ntaganda an ICC in Den Haag übergeben

Beitragvon Birgitt » 23.03.2013 12:49

THE HAGUE, Netherlands — African warlord Bosco Ntaganda was taken from the U.S. Embassy in Rwanda on Friday and flown to International Criminal Court in The Hague, where he faces charges including murder, rape and persecution in a rebel group's deadly reign of terror that gripped eastern Congo a decade ago. Ntaganda arrived and was taken to a cell shortly before midnight Friday, nearly seven years after he was first indicted. His transfer was hailed as a crucial step in bringing to justice one of Africa's most n-otorious warlords.

Bosco Ntaganda In Custody At International Criminal Court In The Hague
22.03.2013 - Huffington Post

Der kongolesische Rebellenführer Bosco Ntaganda ist an den Internationalen Strafgerichtshof in Den Haag übergeben worden. Zuletzt hatte er sich nach einem internen Machtkampf in die US-Botschaft in Ruanda geflüchtet.

Rebellenchef Ntaganda an Den Haag überstellt
22.03.2013 - DW World

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Ntaganda in Den Haag - Panik in Ostafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 24.03.2013 20:08

The departure of wanted Congolese warlord Bosco Ntaganda for The Hague to face charges at the International Criminal Court has sent a wave of panic across regional governments over what the man nicknamed the Terminator will reveal in the dock [...] As Mr Ntaganda heads to ICC, uncertainty looms about what he will say in his defence to the four counts of war crimes and three counts of crimes against humanity that were brought against him, that could prove damaging to Kigali [....] Two theories have emerged to explain how Mr Ntaganda found his way into the American embassy, which is located only a stone’s throw away from the president’s office in the leafy Kacyiru suburb ...

Ntaganda’s Hague sojourn sows panic in East Africa
24.03.2013 - Africa Review

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Ntaganda - Voranhörung am Internationalen Strafgerichtshof

Beitragvon Birgitt » 27.03.2013 00:25

Bosco Ntaganda, the Congolese rebel commander with a reputation for extreme brutality, did not live up to his nickname "The Terminator’’ on Tuesday when he appeared for the first time at the International Criminal Court on charges of rape, murder, sexual slavery and using children as soldiers. Wearing a court-issued dark suit, Mr. Ntaganda seemed timid and anxious, cutting a slight figure next to one of the burly guards the court had chosen for the occasion. Although Mr. Ntaganda, long a wanted man, was not asked to enter a plea, he quickly told the judge and a room full of black-gowned lawyers, ‘'I was informed of these crimes, but I plead not guilty.'’ When the judge, Ekaterina Trendafilova, asked him to state his profession, Mr. Ntaganda, 39, said simply, ‘'I was a soldier in the Congo.'’

War Crimes Suspect Tells Court He Was Just ‘a Soldier’
26.03.2013 - NYT

Kongolesischer Rebellenführer Ntaganda beteuert Unschuld
26.03.2013 - dtoday

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DR Kongo - Zusammenstoß mit Mai Mai Rebellen in Lubumbashi

Beitragvon Birgitt » 27.03.2013 00:28

Es gibt noch andere Krisenherde im Osten Kongos:

At least five people have died in clashes between security forces and suspected Mai Mai militia in Lubumbashi in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Fighters entered the city, in the mineral-rich Katanga province, and opened fire on Congolese army and police killing four, officials said. One militia fighter was also reported to have died.

DR Congo forces clash with militia in Lubumbashi
23.03.2013 - BBC

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