Wüstenschiff • Thema anzeigen - Ebola - Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone und Mali

Ebola - Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone und Mali

In diesem Bereich findest du aktuelle Hinweise zu Epidemien und gesundheitliche Risiken im Reiseland und wie man sich davor schützt bzw. vorbeugt, Informationen zur Gesundheitsversorgung, Ärzte und Krankenhäuser.

Moderatoren: Birgitt, Moderatorengruppe

Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 08.04.2014 17:04

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (10)
**************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] Sierra Leone, additional information
[2] Ghana NOT
[3] Guinea
[4] Liberia


******
[1] Sierra Leone, additional information
Source: Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation [edited]
<contehy@gmail.com>

As of today, 6 Apr 2014, there are NO laboratory confirmed cases of Ebola virus in Sierra Leone (SL).

On 23 Mar 2014, samples from 2 suspected Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) patients from Guinea collected by the Guinean authorities were referenced to the Ministry of Health & Sanitation (MOHS, Sierra Leone) investigation field team and subsequently referred to the Kenema Government Hospital reference laboratory. All were found to be negative for Ebola, Lassa fever, Marburg, and yellow fever [viruses] by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR].

On 25 Mar 2014, an MOHS multidisciplinary field team carried out epidemiological investigations to examine reports on the death of a suspected case (one of 2 previous reported to ProMED-mail). The patient had expired and was buried prior to the arrival of the investigation team. In total, 15 close case contacts were identified, sampled and tested negative by RT-PCR for all existing known 5 Ebola virus species.

On 3 and 4 Apr [2014], disease surveillance officers and district medical officers investigated one suspected case from Bombali and 2 suspected cases from Bombali and Kambia. These 3 cases were sampled and were negative for Ebola virus by conventional and real-time RT-PCR. Additional testing protocols are ongoing to test for other viral pathogens.

In order to effectively manage this emergency, the SL MOHS established a National Outbreak Response Taskforce, and the following actions have been undertaken in response to the potential for spread of the epidemic:

- the office of the chief medical officer (CMO) is coordinating all operations involving suspected cases of Ebola as well as the follow-up investigation;
- active surveillance of suspected cases meeting the WHO case definition for either Ebola or Lassa fever is ongoing and on an as-needed basis;
- national taskforce biweekly meetings are being held, bringing together all senior officials of national and international health institutions to provide them with relevant information in real time;
- the MOHS, the UN, foreign governments, NGOs and other national and international stakeholders are currently positioning support funds and other resources to aid in sensitization, distribution of PPE and care guidelines, educational campaigns by radio and television, and other support;
- the MOHS has established a central reporting "hotline" for the reporting of suspected viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF);
- radio and television "jingles" have been developed in local languages to sensitize the community to this disease;
- daily press conferences are being held by the MOHS to inform the public and prevent panic initiated by the spread of rumors;
- just in time, barrier care and isolation ward training is being conducted using the train-the-trainer method at the Kenema Government Hospital VHF Ward, where the WHO manual for the management of VHF in the African Setting will be distributed, along with local materials needed to construct makeshift isolation wards;
- a locally produced educational skit aimed at Ebola prevention and sensitization is under way and will be distributed via national television and through NGO networks;
- standardized data collection forms for surveillance, VHF notification, and VHF clinical care were adapted for local use and are being distributed at in-country training sessions to appropriate parties;
- the WHO standardized Ebola case definition is currently being distributed to all healthcare facilities;
- locally adapted public health prevention campaign posters are in the final stages of development and will be distributed nationwide;

As part of an existing collaboration between the SL MOHS, Metabiota and the USAMRIID Diagnostics Systems Division, the Kenema Government Hospital reference laboratory had previously installed a Zaire Ebola-specific PCR, which was used to screen the 1st contact cases from Sierra Leone reported to ProMED.

The MOHS/WHO/Metabiota response team has installed and is currently running a full suite of Ebola-specific and differential diagnostics, including the WHO recommended Ebola Zaire-specific RT-PCR, Ebola Zaire-specific antigen and IgM capture ELISAs, a pan-filovirus RT-PCR, as well as published PCR assays for the detection of Lassa fever, yellow fever and other confounding locally endemic pathogens.

The MOHS and other partners are providing the recommended full personal protection equipment (PPE) for health workers exposed to suspected cases.

The MOHS National Task Force is continuing to actively conduct surveillance for Ebola virus, as well as Lassa fever, which is hyperendemic in eastern Sierra Leone, and the Kenema Government Hospital Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Ward has been designated as the central receiving and treatment facility for anyone suspected of contracting either Ebola or Lassa fever [virus infections]. This facility is highly specialized in the treatment and management of viral hemorrhagic fevers. A specialized barrier-care, infectious disease ambulance provided by Metabiota to transport acute Lassa fever patients is also being used to transport suspected cases, and every precaution is being made to protect both health care workers and local populations from the risk of spread of the disease.

Metabiota Inc., working under the direct supervision of the SL MOHS and the WHO Country Office (http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-p ... -2014.html) is being supported by a US government inter-agency response effort, including the DTRA Cooperative Biological Engagement Program, the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Integrated Research Facility, the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, the US DoD Critical Reagents Program, and other US and international partners.

Just-in-time, hands-on clinical management training for district healthcare workers, including how to set up local isolation wards, will be conducted in the next week. Additional training and VHF sensitization will also be provided to National level and District level surveillance officers as well as border checkpoint health surveillance workers. Each training event will be used as a distribution opportunity for up to date materials, as well as the recommended PPE and instructions on its use. The training of trainers for clinical personnel is being managed by Dr Sheik Humarr Khan, chief physician of the Lassa fever ward at the Kenema Government Hospital, and Dr Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Metabiota senior scientist and physician, according to the WHO manual on the control of viral hemorrhagic fevers.

--
communicated by:
Yayah A Conteh
Principal Health Partners Coordination Officer
West African Health Organisation (WAHO) Liaison Officer
Ministry of Health and Sanitation
Youyi Building, 5th Floor (East Wing)
Brookfields, Freetown,
Sierra Leone
<contehy@gmail.com>

[This complete summary of the Sierra Leone's MOHS planning and training again illustrates their outstanding organization and preparedness for response should Ebola virus disease be detected in that country. ProMED-mail thanks Dr Yayah A Conteh for providing this report.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map showing the location of Sierra Leone can be accessed at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/46. - Mod.TY]

******
[2] Ghana NOT
Date: Mon 7 Apr 2014
Source: Joyonline [edited]
http://www.myjoyonline.com/news/2014/Ap ... gative.php


The test result of blood samples collected from a 12 year old suspected to have been killed by the deadly Ebola [virus] disease has proven negative. The Noguchi Memorial Institute took the samples to test following the girl's death at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi at the weekend.

Suggestions the girl might have died of Ebola [virus infection] was a matter of concern to Ghana's health officials and members of the public. The virus has already claimed more than 80 lives in Guinea alone. It has also killed more than 5 people in Liberia.

Though controversy surrounding the girl's death has been dealt with now, the Health Ministry is leaving nothing to chance. Minister of health Sherry Ayittey, who confirmed the test result at a press conference in Accra on Monday [7 Apr 2014], said 66 quarantine centres would be set up, especially at health facilities across the country.

The ministry is also looking at having similar facilities at the nation's border entries, wild game, or forest reserves. A taskforce is already in place to monitor a possible occurrence of the disease.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail rapporteur Mary Marshall

[It is good news indeed that the suspected case has been proven negative for Ebola virus infection.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map showing the location of Ghana can be accessed at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/53. - Mod.TY]

******
[3] Guinea
Date: Fri 4 Apr 2014
Source: Global Post [edited]
http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news ... th-toll-95


Guinea's government raised the death toll in the Ebola epidemic raging through its southern forests and capital to 95 on Mon 31 Mar 2014. The health ministry added 9 deaths to the toll of 86 given before the weekend, saying that 52 cases had been confirmed in laboratories to be the killer tropical virus.

"Up to now, the Guinean authorities have registered 151 suspect cases and 95 deaths," the ministry's chief disease prevention officer Sakoba Keita told AFP, without specifying the locations of the new deaths.

A number of patients have been discharged from Ebola treatment centres after beating the virus. Marie-Claire Lamah, a Guinean doctor working for medical charity Medecins sans Frontieres [MSF; doctors without borders] in its treatment centre in Conakry was quoted as saying: "When the 1st patient came out from the treatment centre, I was so happy, and the whole team was cheering!"

Various studies -- including a paper published in the New England Journal of Medicine last year [2013] -- have demonstrated some immunity in survivors from the particular strain to which they were exposed, but life-long immunity has not been demonstrated. MSF said it was working with local communities to ensure that discharged patients who have beaten the virus can return home safely and that everyone understands they are no longer contagious. "We explain to the families and neighbours that the patient is now negative and doesn't present any risks to anyone; they can be kissed, touched and hugged without any risk of contagion," says MSF health promoter Ella Watson-Stryker. MSF has some 60 international staff working in Guinea and has flown in more than 40 tons of supplies to tackle the epidemic.

Ebola [virus infection] leads to haemorrhagic fever, which causes muscle pain, weakness, vomiting, diarrhoea and, in severe cases, organ failure and unstoppable bleeding. The tropical virus can be transmitted to humans from wild animals, and between humans through direct contact with another's blood, faeces or sweat. Sexual contact, or the unprotected handling of contaminated corpses, can also lead to infection.

--
communicated by:
Ryan McGinnis
<ryan@bigstormpicture.com>

[It is curious that the additional 9 fatal cases were not included in the WHO fatal case count reported on 5 Apr 2014 (see ProMED-mail archive 20140406.2385791). It will be of interest to see whether the 95 cases are cited in subsequent reports.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map showing the location of Guinea can be accessed at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/45. - Mod.TY]

******
[4] Liberia
Date: Mon 7 Apr 2014
Source: All Africa [edited]
http://m.allafrica.com/stories/201404071825.html/


The motorcyclist who drove the last victim of the deadly Ebola virus in Liberia is reported to be ailing, and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare wants the public to help find him before he spreads it on to others.

Health minister Dr Walter Gwenigale made the disclosure last Friday shortly after the World Health Organization (WHO) presented a consignment of protective gear to Liberia to aid health workers in the fight against the killer virus.

"The motorcycle driver who drove that sick woman to Firestone -- and the woman has already died -- that motorcycle driver is sick," the minister said. "They called us last night; we sent people to go and find him, but when we got there, they said that the mother had taken him somewhere. Now we are looking for him because whoever gets in contact with that young man including the mother now, is in trouble. So you have to help us to get the word around that whoever has that young man somewhere, please turn him over to us so we can take care of him."

The yet-to-be-identified deceased woman contracted the virus from Foyah Lofa County. The latest woman to die from the Ebola virus at Firestone contracted Ebola while caring for her sister who died of Ebola in Foya, Lofa County. The woman had been at Firestone under observation in isolation. Prior to that, she left the Foya area late on the night of 29 Mar 2014 and travelled via taxi to Monrovia to see her husband. Five other people were in the taxi with her, including the driver. The woman then took a motorcycle to a nearby clinic, where she was seen and released.

In addition, authorities are said to be on the lookout for at least 40 people who may or may not have crossed paths with the deceased woman. Until her death, the woman and her family were being quarantined in their home until they could be moved to an appropriate facility. Although the Health Ministry has been monitoring those who came in contact with the woman, including the taxi driver, the failure of authorities to find the motorcyclist could hamper attempts by health authorities to stop the deadly virus in its tracks.

--
communicated by:
Ryan McGinnis
<ryan@bigstormpicture.com>

[This story illustrates the difficulty in tracing contacts in a highly mobile population. One hopes that the other 40 individuals were not exposed. It would be unusual if the motorcyclist who transported the patient to the hospital or 40 others in casual contact with the infected person became infected during, before, or after the ride. Transmission occurs when people are exposed to blood or other bodily fluids, or are in physical contact with acutely ill or deceased individuals.

ProMED-mail thanks Ryan McGinnis for sending in this report.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map showing the location of Liberia can be accessed at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/54. - Mod.TY]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Ebola in Westafrika - MSF warnen vor schwerer Epidemie

Beitragvon Birgitt » 08.04.2014 19:38

Es gibt keine Behandlung und kein Medikament: Im westafrikanischen Guinea sind bereits fast 100 Menschen an Ebola gestorben. Inzwischen hat das Virus die Hauptstadt Conakry erreicht. Im Nachbarland Liberia wurden zehn Todesopfer gemeldet. Auch weitere Staaten in Westafrika melden Verdachtsfälle. "Ärzte ohne Grenzen" spricht von einer Epidemie nie gekannten Ausmaßes ... Nun sei es ein Wettlauf gegen die Zeit, um Schlimmeres zu verhindern - eine weitere Verbreitung der gefährlichsten Krankheit der Welt in Westafrika.

Westafrika in Angst vor Ebola
08.04.2014 - tagesschau

Gruß
Birgitt
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Ebola-Fieber in Guinea

Beitragvon Birgitt » 09.04.2014 20:40

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (11): GUINEA
**********************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

Date: Tue 8 Apr 2014
Source: Reuters [edited]
http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/ ... 9L20140408


A "challenging" outbreak of the deadly [Ebola virus disease] in West Africa is expected to take from 2-4 months to contain, the World Health Organization (WHO) said on Tuesday [8 Apr 2014]. The virus is still spreading in 3 "hotspots" of Guinee Forestiere [Forest-Guinea], a south eastern region some 900 km (560 miles) from Guinea's capital of Conakry, a city which has itself reported 20 cases to date, the United Nations agency said.

But WHO said it was not recommending any travel restrictions for Guinea, which has a total of 157 suspected and confirmed cases including 101 deaths, or for Liberia, which has 21 suspected and confirmed cases, including 10 deaths. "We fully expect to be engaged in this outbreak for the next 2 to 3 to 4 months before we are comfortable that we are through it," Dr Keija Fukuda, WHO assistant director-general, told a Geneva news briefing. "This is one of the most challenging outbreaks of ebolavirus we have ever faced," he said. It is also the first to strike West Africa, where some people have become infected from burial practices that involve direct contact with body fluids of the deceased.

WHO medical officer Stephane Hugonnet, just back from Guinea, said: "In Guinee Forestiere, the outbreak is not over, this is the epicenter. As long as it is not over there, there will be cases exported to the rest of the country."

Some 50 foreign experts have been deployed to help with infection control measures at hospitals and to trace 600 known contacts of infected patients, he said. Most new cases were linked to known transmission chains, which he said was "reassuring".

[byline: Stephanie Nebehay; editing by Gareth Jones]

--
communicated by:
Ryan McGinnis
<ryan@bigstormpicture.com>

[The numbers of cases and fatalities from Ebola virus disease continue to climb in Guinea. Before 4 Apr 2014 there were 143 suspected cases and 86 deaths, on 4 Apr 2014 there were 151 suspected cases and 95 deaths, and in this report (8 Apr 2014) there are reported 157 cases and 101 deaths. Tracing the 600 known contacts will be an enormous job, but it is essential if the outbreak is to be halted. Public education will be critical in order to obtain good collaboration and compliance with recommended practices -- something never easy in an environment of fear and rumors in a population spread over a large geographic area.

ProMED-mail thanks Ryan McGinnis for sending this report. A similar report was issued by the BBC (http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-26941698).

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map showing the location of Guinea can be accessed at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/38440. Guinee forestiere (Forest-Guinea) is a forested mountainous region in the south eastern part of the country, extending into north eastern Sierra Leone. It is one of 4 natural regions of Guinea covering 23 per cent of the national territory. It includes the entire Nzerekore administrative region. A map showing the location of Forest-Guinea can be accessed at http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/m ... a-map2.htm. - Mod.TY]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 10.04.2014 20:38

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (12): WHO, MAPPING
****************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] WHO
[2] Liberia
[3] Guinea
[4] Mapping the outbreak
[5] Mapping tools


******
[1] WHO
Date: Mon 7 Apr 2014
Source: WHO Regional Office for Africa [edited]
http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-p ... -2014.html


Ebola virus disease in West Africa (7 Apr 2014) situation update
----------------------------------------------------------------
Guinea

------
A cumulative total of 151 clinically compatible cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) including 95 deaths had officially been reported from Guinea; 65 samples were tested of which 34 tested positive for Ebola. The date of onset of the most recent laboratory confirmed case is 3 Apr 2014; 14 of the cases including 8 deaths are health workers, of which 11 are laboratory confirmed cases.

Liberia
-------
21 clinical cases of EVD, including 10 deaths, have been reported from Liberia. All 5 of the laboratory confirmed cases have died.

Sierra Leone
------------
2 probable cases of EVD were reported from Sierra Leone in one family, who died in Guinea and their bodies were repatriated to Sierra Leone.

Mali
----
4 patients suspected to have a viral haemorrhagic fever presented for health care in Sibiribougou, Koulikoro Region of Mali; 2 of the suspected cases had travelled from Guinea.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[A Health/ProMED-mail interactive map of the area can be seen at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/45. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]

******
[2] Liberia
Date: Tue 8 Apr 2014
Source: Premium Times, Xinhua News Agency/News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) report [edited]
http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/1583 ... -dead.html


Ebolavirus is one of the most aggressive viruses known to date because it kills rapidly. The Liberia government on Tuesday [8 Apr 2014] in Monrovia said the number of people afflicted with the Ebola virus disease has risen to 18, of which 11 people have died.

The Liberian minister of health, Walter Gwenigale, decried the situation and warned Liberians to take the it seriously, saying it is no joke at all as the Ebola epidemic is aggressive. Mr Gwenigale said that the number of Ebola cases in the country had risen to the latest figure [18] from 14 last week.

He said 8 deaths were recorded in Foya, Lofa County, near Guinea, from where the virus entered the country. He also noted that the other 3 deaths took place in Montserrado County in the capital, Monrovia, one in Margibi County, and one in north eastern Nimba County, where a hunter was reported to have died of the disease. The minister said Ebola usually leaves little time for treatment to save a sick individual.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[3] Guinea
Date: Wed 9 Apr 2014
Source: IDPH (Infectious Diseases and Public Health) Research Group [edited]
https://twitter.com/IDPHRGroup/status/4 ... 5566283778


IDPH has prepared a useful map showing the affected areas of Guinea as of 5 Apr 2014. See https://twitter.com/IDPHRGroup/status/4 ... 5566283778.

--
Sofian Ragab
IDPH Research Group

******
[4] Mapping the outbreak
Date: Wed 9 Apr 2014
Source: WHO Regional Office for Africa [edited]
http://www.afro.who.int/en/media-centre ... break.html


WHO and partners scale up the response to the Ebola outbreak

------------------------------------------------------------
According to the latest figures, 157 people, including 101 deaths, have been infected with the Ebola virus disease in Guinea. As of today [9 Apr 2014], 66 cases have been confirmed by laboratory analysis -- 8 patients in Guinea have so far recovered.

To strengthen contact tracing in Conakry, the World Health Organization (WHO) organized an intensive training today for a 1st group of 70 trainees. They will go into the communities to follow up on specific persons who had close contacts with patients with a confirmed Ebola infection. Training for health workers on infection control has started yesterday [8 Apr 2014] in different departments of the Donka national teaching hospital [Conakry] and will also take place in other health facilities in coming days.

Simultaneously, WHO is setting up an operation centre for alert and response within the Guinean Ministry of Health (MoH) in order to centralize the coordination of all activities linked to detection, search, transportation, hospitalisation, and burial of suspect cases. WHO clinicians continue to support Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) and MoH in providing clinical management at Donka isolation ward.

Spread across 6 districts of the country including Conakry, this Ebola outbreak represents a particular challenge that requires the mobilization of different resources from national and international partners to put in place the necessary response measures. WHO has more than 50 people on the ground supporting the Ministry of Health and other partners to provide clinical management of patients, contact tracing, disease surveillance, laboratory work, logistics, as well as information-sharing and social mobilization and communication.

New outbreak management software developed by the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) is presently being updated with data from the field, and will soon be used as the primary database tool by all partners. The CDC software package Epi-Info aggregates various types of outbreak data into a single database that produces statistical and visual reports on the outbreak.

Raising awareness of the risk factors for infection and the protective measures that should be taken is the only way to stop transmission and subsequent deaths. Close unprotected physical contact with Ebola patients should be avoided and those who have died from the disease should be promptly and safely buried.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail rapporteur Mary Marshall

******
[5] Mapping tools
Date: Wed 9 Apr 2014
Source: New Scientist [edited]
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... 0XujWRDuH9


Mapping in a crisis: online army helps map Guinea's Ebola outbreak
------------------------------------------------------------------
Health workers responding to an Ebola outbreak in Guinea had no maps to go on, so they turned to the internet for help.

When doctors working for Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) arrived in the West African nation of Guinea last month [March 2014] to combat an outbreak of the deadly Ebola haemorrhagic fever, they found themselves working in an information vacuum. Accurate maps are crucial to pinpointing the source of the Ebola virus and preventing it from spreading. But the only maps in Guinea were topographic charts -- useless for understanding population distribution. Desperate for information, they enlisted an online army to help. MSF asked a digital mapping organisation called Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT) to build them a map of Gueckedou, a city of around 250 000 people in southern Guinea, where the outbreak is concentrated.

As of 31 Mar 2014, online maps of Gueckedou were virtually non-existent, says Sylvie de Laborderie of cartONG, a mapping NGO that is working with MSF to coordinate the effort with HOT. "The map showed 2 roads maybe -- nothing, nothing." Within 12 hours of contacting the online group, Gueckedou's digital maps had exploded into life. Nearly 200 volunteers from around the world added 100 000 buildings based on satellite imagery of the area, including other nearby population centres. "It was amazing, incredible. I have no words to describe it. In less than 20 hours they mapped 3 cities," says de Laborderie.

Mathieu Soupart, who leads technical support for MSF operations, says his organisation started using the maps right away to pinpoint where infected people were coming from and work out how the virus, which had killed 95 people in Guinea when New Scientist went to press, is spreading. "Having very detailed maps with most of the buildings is very important, especially when working door to door, house by house," he says. The maps also let MSF chase down rumours of infection in surrounding hamlets, allowing them to find their way through unfamiliar terrain.

MSF now has up-to-date maps of the whole area. Workers are each given an A4 printout of a specific area to canvass door to door, surveying inhabitants and searching for signs of the disease. The pages can then be assembled into a larger map to provide the big picture.

Mikel Maron, co-founder of HOT, says the firm's work with the American Red Cross in response to typhoon Haiyan showed aid organisations the potential for digital mapping. De Laboradorie agrees. "After the typhoon in the Philippines we got very, very interested by GIS [geographic information system software] and maps in order to support their operation," she says. "The places that are among the most vulnerable to contagious disease outbreaks are also the least mapped," says Maron. "We have real potential to help decrease that vulnerability."

Information on each Ebola case is also being added to the maps built by HOT. While the new maps are available for anyone to use online via OpenStreetMaps (OSM), the case information won't be uploaded to the public OSM map of the city, due to its sensitive nature. But it will help MSF efforts to identify the outbreak's patient zero -- and hence where the Ebola outbreak originated.

The global nature of the mapping effort is stunning, says de Laborderie. "When you are going to sleep at the end of the day, another part of the world is mapping."

[byline: Hal Hodson]

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail rapporteur Mary Marshall

[The WHO/AFRO report in [1] above has a table of the Guinea cases by district, epidemiological graphs of ages and dates of onset of cases, and a map showing the connection between the cases in all 4 countries.

Mapping tools and the epidemiological software described above are crucial for rapid analysis of the huge amount of incoming data. - Mod.JW]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Ebola in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 11.04.2014 11:40

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (13): WHO, MALI SUSPECTED, UNICEF
*******************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] WHO press briefing
[2] WHO/AFRO update
[3] UNICEF press release
[4] Comments


******
[1] WHO press briefing
Date: Tue 8 Apr 2014
Source: WHO virtual press briefing
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/multimed ... iefing/en/


Update on the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa -- virtual press briefing
--------------------------------------------------------------------
8 Apr 2014 press briefing by Dr Keiji Fukuda, assistant director-general, Health Security and Environment, and Dr Stephane Hugonnet, medical officer, WHO.

[The complete transcript of the briefing is available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/multimed ... 4.pdf?ua=1.
Audio and video (MP3) files are also online at WHO. - Mod.JW]

******
[2] WHO/AFRO update
Date: Thu 10 Apr 2014
Source: WHO Regional Office for Africa, Epidemic & Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR), Outbreak News [edited]
http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-p ... -news.html


EPR - Outbreak News: Ebola virus disease, West Africa -- situation as of 10 Apr 2014
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Guinea
------
As of [10 Apr 2014], a cumulative total of 157 clinically compatible cases, including 101 deaths have been officially reported.

Laboratory investigations continue at the Institut Pasteur (IP) Dakar laboratory in Conakry [Guinea] (65 samples tested, of which 38 are positive by PCR for ebolavirus) and at the European Union Mobile Laboratory (EMLab) team in Gueckedou [Guinea] (38 samples tested/28 positive). A total of 66 clinical cases have been laboratory confirmed (42 per cent), while 87 of the remaining clinical cases are classified as probable cases and 4 as suspected cases.

24 of the 101 deaths have been laboratory confirmed. 6 districts of Guinea have reported patients -- Conakry (20 patients, all laboratory confirmed), Gueckedou (96 cases/32 confirmed), Macenta (28 cases/12 confirmed), Kissidougou (9 cases/1 confirmed), and Dabola and Djingaraye combined (5 cases/1 confirmed). The date of onset of the most recently identified suspected clinical cases in Conakry and Gueckedou was [8 Apr 2014].

One additional healthcare worker (HCW) [case] has been reported since the [7 Apr 2014] update, bringing the total to 15 (10 laboratory confirmed and 5 probable cases). Medical observation is continuing for 488 contacts while 453 have been discharged from follow-up. No new contacts were identified on [8 Apr 2014].

Liberia
-------
As of [10 Apr 2014], the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Liberia has reported a cumulative total of 5 laboratory confirmed cases and 20 suspected and probable cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD).

The date of onset of the most recent confirmed case is [6 Apr 2014], with 6 patients currently hospitalised. Lofa County accounts for 32 per cent of the clinical cases reported to date (4 laboratory confirmed/6 suspected cases) followed by Margibi County (27 per cent, 1 confirmed/ 5 suspected cases). Other Counties at risk include Bong (4 suspected cases) and Nimba (3 suspected cases). Montserrado and Grand Cape Mount Counties have each reported one suspected case.

At present 32 contacts remain under medical observation.

The cumulative number of 12 deaths are being attributed to EVD; Lofa (9), Nimba (1), Margibi (1), and Montserrado (1). All 5 laboratory confirmed cases have died. Laboratory confirmed deaths have occurred in Lofa County (4) and Margibi County (1).

Mali
----
As of [10 Apr 2014], the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Mali has reported a cumulative total of 9 suspected cases, one of whom has died. The most recent suspected case was an unexplained death in a female who had travelled between Siguiri Prefecture, in the Kankan Region of Guinea, and Bamako. Clinical samples were collected from all of the suspected cases to date. 2 of these patients have previously been reported as testing negative for ebolavirus infection and other viral haemorrhagic fever viruses in assays conducted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta. The remaining 7 samples have been dispatched to the Institut Pasteur, Dakar, for testing.

The patients who previously tested negative have been released from medical follow-up and counselling has been provided to their families. The isolation facility as the Centre National d'Appui a la lute contre les Maladie (CNAM), Bamako, designed for the management of cases of Lassa fever, is receiving the suspected cases of EVD. Suspected cases have also been reported from Kouremale (2) and Bankoumana (1) in Koulikoro Region of Mali.

Sierra Leone
------------
Although the epidemiological situation in Sierra Leone remains unchanged, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MOHS) continues to lead intensive EVD preparedness activities. 7 teams, each composed of a director from the MOHS, a program officer of the Disease Prevention and Control directorate, and a program officer from the national Health Education program have been dispatched to each of districts bordering Liberia and Guinea (Kambia, Kenema, Koinadugu, Kailahun, Bombali, Pujehun, and Kono districts) to assess district preparedness with local authorities, including community-wide approaches to EVD preparedness and response and to pre-position supplies.

WHO, in collaboration with technical partners in the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) has deployed field laboratory support, and continues to identify and deploy experts in anthropology, epidemiology and data management, outbreak logistics, clinical case management and infection prevention and control, social mobilisation, risk communications, and outbreak coordination to support the response in all of the affected countries. Over 50 experts have been deployed to date and response supplies, including PPE and a variety of EVD communication and education materials for local adaptation, have been dispatched to affected and neighbouring countries.

As EVD in West Africa continues to evolve, the number of reported cases and deaths, contacts under medical observation, and the number of laboratory results are subject to change due to consolidation of case, contact, and laboratory data, enhanced surveillance and contact tracing activities and ongoing laboratory investigations.

WHO does not recommend that any travel or trade restrictions be applied to Guinea, Liberia, Mali, or Sierra Leone based on the current information available for this event.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[3] UNICEF press release
Date: Thu 10 Apr 2014
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), ReliefWeb, UNICEF report [summ., edited]
http://reliefweb.int/report/guinea/life ... est-africa


Life-saving information helps reduce spread of Ebola across West Africa – Guinea
----------------------------------------------------------------
Together with Ministries of Health and other partners across 7 countries in West Africa, UNICEF is using text messaging through mobile phones, radio shows, TV programmes, and door-to-door campaigns to disseminate life-saving information in an effort to contain the often-fatal Ebola virus disease.

"Most of the people in this part of the world had never heard of [_Ebolavirus_] before," said Dr Guido Borghese, UNICEF principal advisor Child Survival and Development for West and Central Africa. "In this environment, unfounded fears and rumours spread quickly and widely. More than ever, it is crucial that families have both the means and the right information to protect themselves and prevent dangerous misunderstandings."

In collaboration with partners such as the Red Cross and the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF is stepping up efforts to design culturally-sensitive communication strategies and raise awareness of Ebola, at the grassroots level, across the 7 at-risk or affected countries in West Africa.

In Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, Mali, and Guinea-Bissau, mass and digital media and inter-personal communication activities are being carried out to prevent people contracting the ebolavirus amongst communities and health workers in mosques, churches, schools, health centres, and markets.

UNICEF is urgently appealing for USD 1.2 million for Guinea and almost USD 1.3 million for neighbouring countries including Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, and Mali, to provide disinfectant products, essential medicines, life-saving supplies, and communication support crucially needed to stop ebolavirus from spreading further across West Africa.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The UNICEF/ReliefWeb efforts described above are unfortunately likely to result in a rush to health centres by anyone who has a fever or been in contact with a fever case, thus overloading them -- just as they would in the USA, Europe and Asia if a case were to be suspected there. After the 1995 Aum Shinrikyo sarin attack on the Tokyo subway, thousands of people who had never been anywhere near the subway flooded hospital emergency rooms with real or imagined symptoms. - Mod.JW]

******
[4] Comments
Date: Thu 10 Apr 2014
Source: Cross-posted from <nigerianbiomedicalandlifescientists@yahoogroups.co.uk> [edited]


On Thu 10 Apr 2014, 11:39, Shamsudeen Fagbo <oloungbo@yahoo.com> wrote:

Notable points from the WHO virtual press conference on Ebola held on 8 Apr 2014:

- It reaffirms the Ebola negative result from Ghana reported earlier, something [which was] strangely questioned by some on this list. [Nigerian biomedical and life scientists Yahoo Groups]

- Dr Fukuda stresses that the outbreak, like other Ebola outbreaks, can be controlled by enhancing clinical detection and management protocols in tandem with rapid surveillance to track case contacts and prevent further transmission.

This will be the challenge in Nigeria if it ever occurs. Have our doctors and other healthcare workers been able to manage Lassa fever such that we have prevented healthcare-acquired Lassa fever as much as possible? According to the briefing, about 14 health workers have died in Conakry.

- Dr Fukuda reiterates that spreading misinformation, rumours, and other panic-engendering behaviours are an unwanted challenge to controlling the outbreak. Food for thought.

- His broad minded answer to the question on travel restriction should be of immense value.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail <www.promedmail.org>

[What is new in Guinea is one more (avoidable) HCW case and only 488 contacts still under observation (down from 600), while 453 have been discharged from follow-up. The length of the follow-up period is not stated, but the incubation period is up to 21 days, and to be on the safe side, twice the incubation period is normally recommended, and the 1st laboratory confirmed cases were reported on 27 Mar 2014.

The comments from a Nigerian point of view are valuable. One wonders what the reaction of Ghana and other West African countries "in the firing line" are like. - Mod.JW

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/45.]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Verdacht auf Ebola-Fieber in Marokko

Beitragvon Birgitt » 13.04.2014 12:41

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (14): MOROCCO SUSPECTED, VIRUS STABILITY
**************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

[1] Morocco, suspected
Date: 10 Apr 2014
Source: Turner Radio Network [edited]
http://www.turnerradionetwork.com/news/417-pat


Suspected Ebola outbreak hits 6th country: Morocco; one step from Europe
-----------------------------------------------------------------
The Ebola outbreak in west Africa has now expanded to a 6th country: Morocco, and is just one step away from reaching Spain and the continent of Europe. Suspected cases: 2, deaths: 0.

[There was no independent source of this report in English found by internet search. If any reader can find one, please let us know by clicking on Submit Info in the dark blue band at the top of our home page, <www.promedmail.org>. - Mod.JW

Meanwhile, this item should be read with a measure of scepticism and our posting it should not be taken as evidence of its veracity. - Mod.SH]

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[2]
Comment on stability of ebolaviruses from Nigerian biomedical and life scientists

Date: Tue 8 Apr 2014
Source: cross-posted from <nigerianbiomedicalandlifescientists@yahoogroups.co.uk> [edited]


[Doubts have been raised in internet discussions about whether the serological tests being used to detect ebolavirus infections in this outbreak are valid for the virus currently circulating in West Africa. - Mod.JW]

On the Nigerian biomedical and life scientists Yahoo Groups list, Shamsudeen Fagbo <oloungbo@yahoo.com> wrote:

Scientists, including those from France and the USA, working for years on Ebola have documented that the viruses involved in past outbreaks -- spatially and temporally diverse -- are very stable.

In the absence of novel unpublished work [that is] contrary to the references below, we should stick to the evidence we know and not escalate panic. A diagnostic approach of the CDC during the Ugandan outbreak depended mainly on serology to delineate the epidemiological picture and control the outbreak. Molecular tools are sexy but have limitations in real life outbreak situations. It cannot give you answers about infections in post-viremic, convalescent individuals. Understanding the scenario demands reviewing the detailed case and exposure history of the patients -- which is where the skills, or absence thereof, of clinicians come into question.

References
----------
1. Leroy EM, Baize S, Volchkov VE, et al. Human asymptomatic Ebola infection and strong inflammatory response. Lancet. 2000; 355(9222): 2210-5. Available at http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lance ... 40-6736(00)02405-3/fulltext.

Background
----------
[Ebolavirus] is one of the most virulent pathogens, killing a very high proportion of patients within 5-7 days. 2 outbreaks of fulminating haemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Gabon in 1996, with a 70 per cent case fatality rate. During both outbreaks we identified some individuals in direct contact with sick patients who never developed symptoms. We aimed to determine whether these individuals were indeed infected with Ebolavirus, and how they maintained asymptomatic status.

Findings
--------
11 of 24 asymptomatic individuals developed both IgM and IgG responses to Ebola antigens, indicating viral infection. Western-blot analysis showed that IgG responses were directed to nucleoprotein and viral protein of 40 kDa. The glycoprotein and viral protein of 24 kDa genes showed no nucleotide differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Asymptomatic individuals had a strong inflammatory response characterised by high circulating concentrations of cytokines and chemokines.

Interpretation
--------------
This study showed that asymptomatic, replicative Ebola infection can and does occur in human beings. The lack of genetic differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals suggest that asymptomatic Ebola infection did not result from viral mutations. Elucidation of the factors related to the genesis of the strong inflammatory response occurring early during the infectious process in these asymptomatic individuals could increase our understanding of the disease. PMID: 10881895

--
2. Rodriguez LL, De Roo A, Guimard Y, et al: Persistence and genetic stability of Ebola virus during the outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995. J Infect Dis. 1999 Feb; 179 Suppl 1:S170-6; available at http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/1 ... /S170.long.

Abstract
--------
Ebola virus persistence was examined in body fluids from 12 convalescent patients by virus isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during the 1995 Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Virus RNA could be detected for up to 33 days in vaginal, rectal, and conjunctival swabs of 1 patient and up to 101 days in the seminal fluid of 4 patients. Infectious virus was detected in 1 seminal fluid sample obtained 82 days after disease onset. Sequence analysis of an RT-PCR fragment of the most variable region of the glycoprotein gene amplified from 9 patients revealed no nucleotide changes. The patient samples were selected so that they would include some from a suspected line of transmission with at least 3 human-to-human passages, some from 5 survivors and 4 deceased patients, and 2 from patients who provided multiple samples through convalescence. There was no evidence of different virus variants cocirculating during the outbreak or of genetic variation accumulating during human-to-human passage or during prolonged persistence in individual patients. PMID: 9988181

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[We remain in suspense about whether the ebolavirus has crossed the Mali border.

The references in Shamsudeen's comment above are useful reminders that we do not have to search now for a new, different ebolavirus strain, and that existing ebolavirus reagents are still reliable. - Mod.JW]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Bisher KEIN Ebola-Fieber in Ghana, Marokko und Portugal

Beitragvon Birgitt » 13.04.2014 12:42

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (15): MOROCCO, GHANA, PORTUGAL ALL NOT
************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

[1] Morocco NOT
Date: Thu 10 Apr 2014
Source: The Moroccan Times [edited]
http://moroccantimes.com/2014/04/concer ... to-morocco


Moroccan media outlets Goud.ma and Aljarida24.com prompted concerns over a probable outbreak of the West African ebolavirus in Morocco. As a matter of fact, the sources alleged that the Moroccan authorities may have sent some West Saharan natives directly from Airport Mohammed V in Casablanca to the Moulay Youssef hospital after suspecting their contamination with the virus.

The Moroccan authorities denied this right away.

Mr Abdelghani Drhimeur, Ministry of Health's spokesman, said that "no infection case with the ebolavirus has been detected, whether within Morocco or in any of its airports," as relayed by aufaitmaroc.ma.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

*******
[2] Ghana NOT
Date: Fri 11 Apr 2014
Source: Channels Television [edited]
http://www.channelstv.com/home/2014/04/ ... emiologist


Reports from the Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research in the University of Ghana showed that there are no cases of ebolavirus in Ghana, a Nigerian epidemiologist has said.

A state epidemiologist with the Lagos State Ministry of Health, Dr Ismail Abdus-Salam, told Channels Television on Friday [11 Apr 2014] that he spoke with a colleague at the institute and he confirmed that the suspected case of ebolavirus disease in the Ashanti region of Ghana was not Ebola. "I spoke with a colleague at the Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research, in the University of Ghana on Thursday morning [10 Apr 2014] and he said the test conducted on the suspected infected person was negative for Ebola and other typical viral haemorrhagic fevers."

Ghana's health authorities had announced the 1st suspected case of the deadly ebolavirus disease at the country's 2nd biggest hospital, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), in Kumasi. The deputy director of public health in the Ashanti region, Dr Joseph Oduro, said on Sunday evening [6 Apr 2014] that the case resulted in the death of a 12 year old girl. Oduro said the victim, who was admitted to the paediatric unit of the Teaching Hospital with symptoms of fever and bleeding, died, and during a postmortem it was detected she had internal bleeding.

He said the development was alarming since neighbouring countries like Guinea and Liberia had recorded cases of the viral infection. Blood samples of the victim were sent to the Medical Research Institute in Accra for testing. According to Dr Ismail Abdus-Salam's statement, the result of the test was negative. He, however, advised that proper port surveillance should be embarked on to ensure that people with the ebolavirus would not enter into any country unnoticed.

The ebolavirus disease does not have any cure or vaccine and no specific symptoms are known. The disease has already killed dozens of people in neighbouring Guinea, with reported cases in Liberia and Mali.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[3] Portugal NOT
Date: Thu 10 Apr 2014
Source: The Portugal News Online [edited]
http://www.theportugalnews.com/news/por ... ures/31199


Earlier this week a sigh of relief was breathed in Portugal, after a Portuguese national who had recently travelled to Liberia and who was suspected of having contracted Ebola, tested negative for the virus.

While laboratory analyses have quashed concerns that he may have contracted the ebolavirus and brought it back to Portugal, Portuguese immigration and health authorities have nonetheless guaranteed all "procedures appropriate to the situation at hand are ongoing and planned" to deal with an outbreak should it be necessary.

In response to concerns, Portugal's Directorate General of Health (DGS) issued an advisory note suggesting patients be immediately isolated "if a presumed diagnosis of Ebola virus disease is made in a patient with a clinical diagnosis and who has returned recently (within 21 days) from a region where the virus is active." A dedicated phone-line has been made available to medical professionals who come across suspected cases of Ebola.

Francisco George, head of the DGS, also reiterated this week that Portugal is prepared to deal with any eventual cases of Ebola should it be confirmed in this country, and said that all regions are instructed on how to proceed. "In less than 4 hours a citizen [of Guinea or Liberia] can be in Lisbon. It is necessary to draw up emergency measures to stop the activity of the virus from a case that may have just arrived. And we are prepared. We do have a plan for it which is activated whenever necessary." National airline TAP operates flights to Dakar (Senegal) and Bamako (Mali), both of which neighbour with Guinea. According to the BBC, Mali is controlling traffic into and out of its capital, Bamako, and its airport, and using thermal cameras to screen for people who might have fevers.

In a statement sent to The Portugal News WHO spokesperson Gregory Hartl explained: "In the history of Ebola, there has never been a case outside equatorial Africa. In the current event, all the cases are connected with a single chain or tree of transmission. Therefore, it would be highly, highly unlikely that there would be any cases arriving in Portugal. "But it is a terrible disease and until we know we have this outbreak controlled, everyone should remain vigilant." Also vulnerable to contracting the disease are health workers and international aid workers dispatched to the region to help with the outbreak.

[byline: Carrie-Marie Bratley]

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[A correspondent writes: "Morocco is not part of West Africa, but, through Royal Air Maroc, has made Mohamed V airport a hub through which West Africans, including Guineans and Malians, fly from Europe to their respective home countries."

ProMED-mail tries to balance posting reports of suspected cases, as an early warning, against the possibility that they may not be finally confirmed. - Mod.JW]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Re: Ebola-Fieber in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone und Mali

Beitragvon Alexander » 13.04.2014 12:59

Mittlerweile spricht man vom bisher schlimmsten Ausbruch des Ebola Virus. Nicht gemessen an den Opfern. Was diesen Ausbruch besonders gefährlich erscheinen lässt ist die Tatsache, dass es noch nie einen so flächendeckenden Ausbruch gegeben hat, der sich so weit nach Norden ausbreitet. Zum ersten Mal in der Geschichte breitet sich Ebola in einer Großstadt aus.

ebola.jpg


Ebola – der bisher schlimmste Ausbruch
Die aktuelle Ebola-Epidemie ist am 9. Februar im westafrikanischen Guinea ausgebrochen. Zwei Monate später hat sie bisher unbekannte Ausmaße erreicht. Die Weltgesundheitsorganisation ist alarmiert. Auf einer Pressekonferenz bezeichnete der zuständige Vizegeneraldirektor der WHO für Gesundheitssicherheit, der Japaner Keiji Fukuda,
diesen Ebolaausbruch als den schlimmsten bisher registrierten. Und zwar in erster Linie wegen der großflächigen Verbreitung und zweitens, weil die Krankheit erstmals in einer Großstadt auftritt, in Conakry, der Hauptstadt von Guinea. Bisher sind im zuerst betroffenen Land Guinea 157 Fälle registriert worden, von denen 101 bereits tödlich endeten.
Betroffen sind auch in Liberia mit 21 Fälle davon bisher 10 tödlich und Mali mit bisher 9 Verdachtsfällen. mehr...

Grüsse
Alexander
Du hast keine ausreichende Berechtigung, um die Dateianhänge dieses Beitrags anzusehen.
The one who follows the crowd will usually go no further than the crowd. Those who walk alone are likely to find themselves in places no one has ever been before.

... follow us on facebook - das Wüstenschiff auf Facebook
>>> Firmen, die Wüstenschiff-Aktionen in Afrika unterstützen
Alexander
Administrator
 
Beiträge: 22314
Registriert: 30.07.2005 18:12
Wohnort: Dubai

KEIN Ebola-Fieber in Sierra Leone und Mali

Beitragvon Birgitt » 13.04.2014 17:19

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (16): SIERRA LEONE AND MALI NOT, ECONOMY
**************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this posting:
[1] Sierra Leone NOT, Mali NOT
[2] Economic impact
[3] Gambia: flights banned
[4] HealthMap: Ebola updates and an interview
[5] Survivors: immunity and transmission


******
[1] Sierra Leone NOT, Mali NOT
Date: Sat 12 Apr 2014
Source: Euronews [in French, trans. & summ. Mod.JW, edited]
http://fr.euronews.com/2014/04/12/ebola ... -de-guinee


The suspect cases in Mali and Sierra Leone have tested negative.

Temperature detectors have been installed at Guinea's international airport that will show a body temperature above 38 deg C (100.4 deg F).

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[What will Guinea do with passengers who have temperatures above 38 deg C (100.4 deg F)? Quarantine them for 21 days or put them back on the plane? The 2nd alternative would be resisted by aircrew and other passengers. - Mod.JW]

******
[2] Economic impact
Date: Sat 12 Apr 2014
Source: Crofsblogs, Bloomberg News report (11 Apr 2014) [edited]
http://crofsblogs.typepad.com/h5n1/2014 ... inues.html


Ebola: the economic impact continues
------------------------------------
"At least 80 per cent of our reservations have been canceled," Ibrahima Capi Camara, general manager of the 217-room Grand Hotel de L'Independence in the heart of Conakry, said on 8 Apr 2014. "Clients are scared to come because of Ebola."

Measures such as closing borders and restricting travel "don't make sense," according to WHO, which says avoiding close contact with patients will help contain the spread of the disease. That hasn't stopped Senegal from shutting a border or Ivory Coast from barring buses from Liberia and Guinea. Rio de Janeiro-based Vale SA (VALE5), the world's biggest iron-ore producer, sent foreign workers in Guinea back to their homes last week [6-11 Apr 2014?].

"The extreme fear it provokes in populations means that local and regional businesses are already seeing disruption to operations," Charles Laurie, head of Africa research at risk consultant Maplecroft in Bath, England, said in an email. "Regional trade is at risk of grinding to a halt." The disease will curb economic growth in Liberia by slowing cross-border commerce, reducing customs revenue, and investment, finance minister Amara Konneh said in an interview yesterday [11 Apr 2014]. Gross domestic product will expand [only] 6.8 per cent this year, slower than the 8.7 per cent last year [2013], he said.

Mohamed Cherif Abdallah, head of the Organized Group of Businessmen in Conakry, said the outbreak is hurting the economy. "Guinean business owners are losing money because of this," he said by phone yesterday [10 Apr 2014]. "The disease has halted economic activity in the country's interior, and many foreigners are reluctant to come now." The Guinean region and towns of Gueckedou and Macenta where [Ebolavirus] was first detected last month [March 2014] produces most of the fruit and vegetables sold in the capital. "People claim that our bananas contain ebolavirus because they come from Gueckedou," a market vendor in Conakry, said in an interview. "For the past 2 weeks, I've had to throw all my bananas away. Business is dwindling."

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

*******
[3] Gambia: flights banned
Date: Sat 12 Apr 2014
Source: Freedom Newspaper, Gambia [edited]
http://www.freedomnewspaper.com/Homepag ... fault.aspx


Gambia's dictator Yahya Jammeh has ordered the banning of all flights coming from Guinea Conakry, Sierra Leone, and Liberia from landing at the Banjul International airport with immediate effect, the Freedom Newspaper can reveal. The decision followed the outbreak of Ebola virus disease in the West African region. He said the decision to ban flights coming from the above-named countries was in line with Gambia's efforts to prevent its citizens from getting infected with the dreadful Ebola pandemic. Hundreds of passengers have been stranded across the West African region, following Jammeh's latest decree to ban airlines from landing in The Gambia.

Health Ministry officials and Banjul Aviation staff have confirmed the story. According to sources, many travelers have been compelled to travel by land through other countries as The Gambia Civil Aviation Management said they have been instructed by Jammeh to turn down flights coming from Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia.

"The approach taken by Jammeh is wrong, says an official of the Ministry of Health. "We can fight Ebola without banning incoming flights." Even the minister of health is not happy with the decision. The airport is going to lose a lot of revenue in coming days and weeks because of Jammeh's decision," he warned.

In Liberia, it is reported that many passengers travelling to The Gambia have been stranded. One of the passengers told the Freedom Newspaper that he had to cancel his air ticket reservation because of Jammeh's decision to ban incoming flights.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

*******
[4] HealthMap: Ebola updates and an interview
Date: Fri 11 Apr 2014
Source: HealthMap, The Disease Daily [edited]
http://www.healthmap.org/site/diseaseda ... view-41114


Dr Thomas Yuill [TY], a moderator for ProMED-mail and professor emeritus in the Department of Pathobiological Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison spoke with me about the challenges that exist with the current [Ebolavirus] outbreak. Dr Yuill has a joint PhD in wildlife ecology and in veterinary science with a specialization in virology. He has worked throughout the world in the field of zoonoses.

AH: Are you aware of any challenges specific to the current outbreak?

TY: The thing that is most challenging about this outbreak is not only that it is in West Africa, where the virus had not previously been seen, but that it is in many different places including Guinea and Liberia, with suspect cases previously identified in Sierra Leone in people that had traveled from Guinea.

Another challenge that exists is catching up with contacts, as the population is spread out and highly mobile. In addition, some of the regions in Guinea did not have reliable maps available, however maps have since been provided so that health authorities are better able to find houses in these hot spot areas and may now begin going house-to-house to identify any missed cases and potential contacts. Tracking and identifying contacts to specific locations is a tremendous task for officials to complete.

Lastly, there is a lot of fear among locals, which is not surprising given the nature of the disease and the high case fatality rate.

AH: Do you think we will continue to see more cases as part of this outbreak, and what can health officials do at this point to stop the disease from continuing to spread?

TY: Authorities will be able to halt the current outbreak with good case finding and contact tracing practices. It is likely that more cases will be seen however, and getting this outbreak halted will not be easy and will take some time.

AH: Could you tell me more about why the reservoir for [ebolavirus] has not yet been confirmed?

TY: If [ebolavirus] is not highly prevalent in wildlife populations it will take an enormous effort, including costly field studies to track it down. If you are not in the right place at the right time one may not find it.

AH: Do you have any insight about the consumption of bushmeat in these countries, as that is a risk for disease transmission?

TY: The consumption of bushmeat is a well-established practice in many parts of Africa and it constitutes a significant amount of protein for many people as well as a source of income. The ban on bushmeat that has been placed by several countries will likely be extremely difficult to enforce.

AH: Any final thoughts on the ongoing Ebola outbreak?

TY: I think for all of us this has been a major wake-up call. These things can and do happen by surprise and then the challenge is to be ready for them when they occur to be able to respond quickly because the virus isn't going to wait for us to get organized.

Bushmeat safe to eat
--------------------
Officials in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia have banned the sale of bushmeat in local markets in an effort to stop the spread of [ebolavirus]. Reuters reports that some specialists remain skeptical about the ban's effectiveness as many depend on bushmeat for protein and income. Further, some are not convinced that smoked or cooked bushmeat is a significant source of [ebolavirus] infection. In late March [2014], Reuters spoke with a virologist and hemorrhagic fever specialist, Bob Swanepoel, who stressed that filoviruses are transmitted by infected animals and "fresh carcasses" rather than cooked or smoked meat. -

[byline: Amy L Sonricker Hansen]

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Bob Swanepoel's advice that cooked or smoked bushmeat is safe to eat is correct. But one ProMED-mail moderator has seen a passenger arriving from Africa with blood leaking from fresh bushmeat in his baggage. - Mod.JW]

*******
[5] Survivors: immunity and transmission
Date: Fri 11 Apr 2014
Source: National Public Radio (NPR), USA [summ., edited]
http://nipr.fm/post/how-patient-can-recover-ebola


How a person can recover from [Ebola virus disease]
---------------------------------------------------
Marie-Christine Ferir, Brussels-based emergency coordinator for Medecins sans Frontieres [MSF; doctors without borders], says a person's blood may be free of Ebola, but the virus can persist in semen for 2-3 months after recovery. (That's because antibodies produced in the bloodstream don't reach the testicles.) Since Ebolavirus can be transmitted through sexual contact, male survivors are sent home with condoms and instructed to use them for the next 3 months if they engage in intercourse. The virus can also linger in breast milk, so mothers are told to wean any child who had been breastfeeding.

Ebola survivors do not have to worry about contracting the disease again, says Pierre Rollin, deputy director of the viral special pathogens branch of CDC, who has traveled to the site of previous Ebola epidemics over the past 20 years. "When they start to test negative, they're going to remain negative for the rest of their lives."

Mental health is another matter. Health care workers often check on patients in their homes to see how they are faring after the trauma of suffering through Ebola -- and perhaps losing family members to the disease as well. They must also deal with the stigma associated with having had the virus. Health workers teach the community that the Ebola survivor cannot infect them. "They will do a lot of things, especially holding hands with [the patients], to publicly demonstrate that they're not afraid of these people," says Knust. Adds Ferir: "[In the past] we would bring the patient into the middle of the village, and we would give a big kiss to the patient to show that it's OK, no problem."

[byline: Ofeibea Quist-Arcton]

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/45.]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 16.04.2014 11:38

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (17): LIBERIA, SIERRA LEONE, MEDECINS SANS FRONTIERES, EUROPEAN UNION
*******************************************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] Liberia hunter case negative, no bat contact
[2] Sierra Leone - no new cases
[3] West Africa - WHO/AFRO update 14 Apr 2014
[4] EU increases immediate health assistance
[5] MSF challenges in Guinea
[6] Uganda Ebola manual
[7] West Africa


******
1] Liberia hunter case negative, no bat contact
Date: 14 Apr 2014
Source: Richard Nisbett <rnisbett@tubmanu.edu.lr> [summarized by Mod.JW, edited]


Dr Nesbit has 25 years experience in Liberia and states that nobody traps bats in Liberia; they are hunted with bow and arrow; they are not worth using firearms to kill them. The unfortunate hunter's traps were probably snares for small antelope like duikers.

In any case, the hunter died and tested negative for ebolavirus.

(He says this information is still not entirely confirmed).

--
Richard Nisbett
<rnisbett@tubmanu.edu.lr>

******
[2] Sierra Leone - no new cases
Date: 13 Apr 2014
Source: Ebola Update from Sierra Leone, official [edited]


As for 13 Apr 2014, there has been no laboratory confirmed case of Ebola in Sierra Leone (since 19 Mar 2014): the Metabiota Laboratory team in Kenema have received and tested 27 samples collected from 11 suspected acute hemorrhagic fever cases and 16 potential contacts. All (27) tested negative for Ebola fever.

All samples (27) were tested for ebolavirus (Ebola virus Zaire species) using 2 different real-time PCR protocols. IgM and IgG ELISA assays for Ebola virus have been set up and will be used efficiently for the follow-up of the contacts of Ebola suspected cases. Complementary tests including antigen capture (kindly provided and in partnership with USAMRIID) will also be set up in the coming days.

Viral Hemorrhagic fever, VHF
---------------------------
During the present period (Ebola outbreak in Guinea), all samples collected from acute suspected VHF cases and addressed to the Lassa Ward (Dr. Kahn) at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) are to be tested for Lassa virus as well as ebolavirus and, in accordance with the clinical picture, for other viruses potentially responsible for hemorrhagic fevers in the sub-region, including: Marburg virus, Rift Valley Fever virus, Yellow Fever virus, Dengue [4 types?]. Also, in agreement with the clinical picture and in a differential diagnosis approach, samples can/will eventually be tested for other emerging viruses including: West Nile virus and chikungunya among others.

All acute 27 samples tested also negative for several other pathogens including Lassa, Marburg, West Nile, among others potentially prevalent in the region.

The KGH Lassa Fever team and their partners, including Tulane University and Metabiota have been engaged with central MoHS since the announcement of an Ebola outbreak in Guinea. Specialist Physician Dr. Sheik Humarr Khan has been integrally involved in the national task force, providing technical expertise on case management, biosafety, surveillance and response and training. The KGH outreach team led by Lansana Kanneh and Dr. Lina Moses of Tulane University were among the 1st to respond to reports of suspicious deaths in Kailahun and Kono Districts and were primary investigators, providing logistical support, with the team that identified the 2 probable Ebola cases that were repatriated to Kono District. This team was led by District Medical Officer Dr. Francis Jayah and included District Surveillance Officers and staff of Metabiota.

More than 40 medical staff including Medical Officers, nurses, midwives, surveillance officers and laboratory staff are currently at the KGH Lassa Laboratory to participate in the Training of Trainers (TOT) organized by the Ministry and its partners (Metabiota and Tulane University) on Preparedness and Response to Ebola fever.

--
Communicated by:
Sidie Yahya Tunis
Director of Information and Communication
Ministry of Health and Sanitation
Sierra Leone
<tunisys12@gmail.com>

******
[3] West Africa - WHO/AFRO update 14 Apr 2014
Date: 14 Apr 2014
Source: WHO/AFRO
http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-p ... -2014.html


Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of [14 Apr 2014])
----------------
Guinea

As of [14 Apr 2014], the Ministry of Health of Guinea has reported a cumulative total of 168 clinically compatible cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD), including 108 deaths.

The detailed situation report is available as at [11 Apr 2014], describing 159 clinically compatible cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD), including 106 deaths. Laboratory investigations continue at the Institut Pasteur (IP) Dakar laboratory in Conakry (66 samples tested, of which 39 are positive by PCR for ebolavirus) and at the European Union Mobile Laboratory (EMLab) team in Guekedou (55 samples tested/36 positive). A total of 71 clinical cases have been laboratory confirmed (45 percent), while 34 of the remaining clinical cases are classified as probable cases and 54 as suspected cases. Forty-two of the 106 deaths (40 percent) have been laboratory confirmed. Some cases have had repeat testing carried out.

Six districts of Guinea have reported patients - Conakry (31 patients, 22 laboratory confirmed), Guekedou (95 cases/35 confirmed), Macenta (21 cases/12 confirmed), Kissidougou (6 cases/1 confirmed), Dabola (5 cases/1 confirmed) and Djingaraye (1 suspected case). The date of onset of the most recently identified suspected clinical cases in Conakry and Guekedou was [10 Apr 2014]. One additional health care worker (HCW) has been reported, bringing the total to 16 (11 laboratory confirmed and 5 probable cases).

Eleven patients were still hospitalised on [10 Apr 2014] while 37 have been discharged from care. A total 941 contacts have been identified since the beginning of the outbreak. Medical observation is continuing for 396 contacts while 545 have been discharged from follow-up.

Doctors at the Donka Hospital isolation facility in Conakry are investigating a cluster of cases who had funeral contact with a relative who died on [1 Apr 2014] with suspected malaria. Two contacts of this patient were admitted on [12 Apr 2014] and tested positive. One doctor, an internal medicine physician who tested positive on a post mortem sample, had cared for this patient and is also linked to this chain of transmission. He developed an illness with features of EVD but without signs of bleeding. Hospital-based surveillance and triage procedures and infection prevention and control are being strengthened as a result of this cluster. Community sensitization promoting safe burial practices in the community continue.

The distribution of cases and deaths reported today has changed as a result of ongoing data review against the surveillance case definitions in use and the receipt of laboratory results. Numbers of cases and contacts remain subject to change due to consolidation of case, contact and laboratory data, enhanced surveillance and contact tracing activities and the continuing laboratory investigations.

Liberia
As of [11 Apr 2014], the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Liberia has reported a cumulative total of 26 clinical cases of EVD (6 laboratory confirmed, and 20 probable and suspected cases of EVD), including 13 deaths. The most recent clinical case was identified on [11 Apr 2014] while the date of admission of the most recent laboratory confirmed case is [4 Apr 2014]; 3 patients are currently hospitalised while 5 suspected cases that tested PCR negative for ebolavirus have been discharged (4 from Bong County and 1 from Nimba County).

Lofa County accounts for 38 percent of the clinical cases reported to date (4 laboratory confirmed and 6 suspected cases) followed by Margibi County (23 percent, 1 confirmed and 5 suspected cases). Other Counties at risk include Bong (5 suspected cases) and Nimba (3 suspected cases). Montserrado and Grand Cape Mount Counties have each reported one suspected case. At present 35 contacts remain under medical observation and 32 have been released from follow-up. A cumulative number of 13 deaths are being attributed to EVD; Lofa (9), Nimba (1), Margibi (2) and Montserrado (1). All 6 laboratory confirmed cases have died; this includes 3 HCW.

Mali
As of [14 Apr 2014], the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Mali reports a cumulative total of 6 suspected cases, all of whom remain under medical observation (3 in the capital city of Bamako, and 2 in Kouremale and 1 in Bankoumana in the Koulikoro Region. The results of testing on these patients at the Institut Pasteur laboratory in Dakar, Senegal, are expected shortly.

Sierra Leone
There has been no change in the epidemiological situation of EVD in Sierra Leone.

WHO does not recommend that any travel or trade restrictions be applied to Guinea, Liberia, Mali or Sierra Leone based on the current information available for this event.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[In the last WHO update (11 Apr 2014) reports were for 157 clinically compatible cases, including 101 deaths had been officially reported by Guinea as of 10 Apr 2014. This current report increases this tally by 11 clinically compatible case including 7 deaths .There is one additional confirmed case in Liberia since the last report. The above report provides some interesting epidemiologic details on the ongoing outbreak. - Mod.MPP]

******
[4] EU increases immediate health assistance
Date: 14 Apr 2014
Source: AllAfrica [edited]
http://allafrica.com/stories/201404140340.html


The European Union is stepping up its efforts to contain the spread of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and assist those affected by the deadly virus. The commission has increased its funding for immediate health operations, experts and risk assessments to 1.1 million Euros [USD 1.5 million] and is contributing medical equipment to help accelerate diagnosis.

"Acting rapidly is crucial. We are reinforcing our support to partner organisations in Guinea and neighbouring countries to ensure urgently needed healthcare to those hit by the epidemic and to stop it from further expanding," said Kristalina Georgieva, EU Commissioner for International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response.

EU Commissioner for Development Andris Piebalgs commented: "The European Commission has been mobilising experts and equipment at short notice to provide quick help on the ground. Good coordination is key in the international response to this outbreak, and this is why we are also setting up a network of EU and African health institutes to exchange know-how in tackling this terrible disease."

Following a commitment of 500 000 Euros [USD 691 000] from last week, the Commission has increased its assistance to help the affected communities in Guinea and neighbouring countries to 1.1 million Euros. These new funds will allow Medecins Sans Frontieres to scale up the on-going interventions in the field of clinical management (such as the isolation of patients and psychosocial support), the tracing of suspected cases, and the training and supply of personal protective equipment for health workers.

Furthermore, the new funds will support the World Health Organization (WHO) in ensuring epidemiological surveillance and providing medical supplies, equipment, transport logistics and health personnel.

Three humanitarian experts from the commission have been sent to Conakry and Monrovia to monitor the situation on the ground and liaise with local authorities and partners. Moreover, on 26 Mar 2014, 6 European specialists of the European Mobile Lab project (EMLab) for dangerous infectious diseases arrived in Gueckedou, Guinea with a mobile laboratory unit. This consists of easily transportable equipment for high security virus manipulation. It will substantially enhance the available capacity for rapid analyses of samples and confirmation of Ebola cases, reducing the number of undiagnosed cases and preventing the further spread of the disease.

The EU is closely following the latest developments with its Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). This has just issued a 2nd Rapid Risk Assessment stating that the risk for EU citizens travelling or living in the affected countries remains "low," and giving a series of recommendations on prevention.

The EMLab project is an initiative funded by the European Commission. It includes partners from Germany, Italy, France, Hungary, Switzerland, Slovenia and the United Kingdom. As part of the international response to the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, WHO and its Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) requested lab experts of the EMLab project to support the Ministry of Health of Guinea in viral haemorrhagic fever diagnostics. The team of experts is composed of scientists from

- the Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine (Germany),
- the Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology (Germany),
- the Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive L. Spallanzani (Italy) and
- the Laboratoire P4 - INSERM Jean Merieux (France).

They will be joined by 4 experts from Germany, France and Hungary on 15 Apr 2014; another team will take over 4 weeks later.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

*******
[5] MSF challenges in Guinea
Date: 12 Apr 2014
Source: Crofsblogs via The Independent [edited]
http://crofsblogs.typepad.com/h5n1/2014 ... -with.html


I received a message at home in Brussels about this strange disease which had broken out in Guedeckou, in southern Guinea. They thought that perhaps it was Lassa fever, but when I received a description of the patients' symptoms, it was clear to me that we were talking about ebolavirus disease. A couple of days later, I was in Guinea.

I've worked in every major outbreak of ebolavirus disease since 2000. What makes this one different is its geographical spread, which is unprecedented. There are cases in at least 6 towns in Guinea, as well as across the border in Liberia. The problem is that everybody moves around; infected people move from one village to another while they're still well enough to walk; even the dead bodies are moved from place to place. So, as an epidemiologist tracking the disease, it's like doing detective work.

The other problem is that ebolavirus has never been confirmed before in Guinea, so you can be blamed for being the messenger; you're the guy bringing the bad news that the village has been touched by Ebola. To them, it means death, so people often refuse to believe the reality.

We were tracing a patient who we finally found staying with family members in a very small village. He was an educated man, a professor. He'd become infected while caring for a colleague who had caught the disease by caring for his sick uncle; when somebody is sick in Guinea, they are always cared for by people of the same sex.

The professor realised it was probably better for him to come with us to the MSF centre, but his nephew and an elderly female relative suddenly appeared and took the sick patient off into the forest. They had no confidence in the health system and believed that people were killed in our centres, so they decided to keep their relative in the forest and cure him with leaves and herbs.

I followed them into the forest. They were very aggressive; the nephew took a big stick and was hitting the ground, but behind the aggression you could hear the pain in his voice. Eventually, we got a sample from the sick man to make a proper diagnosis. The next day, he asked us to come and collect him.

[Byline: Michael Van Herp, MSF]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[6] Uganda Ebola manual
Date: 14 Apr 2014
Source: Containing a Haemorrhagic fever epidemic: the Ebola experience in Uganda (October 2000-January 2001)
http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?q=C ... nuary+2001)&hl=pt-BR&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart&sa=X&ei=kupLU9GDG_KtsQSgioHoAw&ved=0CCgQgQMwAA


[This is a useful manual. - Mod.JW]

--
Communicated by:
Muktar Gadanya
<gadanya@gmail.com>
via Nigerian Biomedical and Life Scientists Yahoo Groups

******
[7] West Africa
Date: 10 Apr 2014
Source: Minnesota Public Radio, The UTMB Newsroom [edited]
http://www.utmb.edu/newsroom/article9418.aspx


The death toll from the outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has passed 100. Health officials are working to contain the outbreak, which is reported spreading beyond Guinea to Mali, Ghana, and Liberia. It has killed more than 60 percent of those infected.

UTMB's Thomas Geisbert joined Gregory Haertl from the World Health Organization to provide his thoughts and expertise on the situation. As described by Laurie Garrett of the Council on Foreign Relations in an interview on PBS Newshour, the virus produces symptoms that are frightening to witness:

"Ebola is an RNA virus, a very small virus that attacks the endothelial linings that maintain the integrity of your blood vessels, blood veins, [and] capillaries. [Initially], little microscopic holes [open], through which bits of blood and fluids will leak, but eventually, larger and larger holes, until the individual begins to hemorrhage internally, hemorrhaging blood through tears, from the mouth, from the nose, all over the body, so that they become quite frightening to see. And individuals will get a high fever. They may get blood in their brain, which will lead to even more insane behavior, a kind of deranged look in their eyes, all of which contributes to a great deal of fear. On top of it all, the fluids contain virus, so they're highly, highly contagious to the touch."

This is the 1st epidemic of Ebola in West Africa and the worst since 2007. We talked to 2 experts on the disease [UTMB's Thomas Geisbert and WHO's Gregory Haertl] to get a handle on the threat posed by the current outbreak.

"Something's going on in the rain forest, because what these countries share is a special ecology, a special rain forest region, within which are the fruit bats that normally carry the Ebola virus harmlessly to the bat population, but can pass it on to other primates, which can be eaten by the humans, or to people, hunters, that may be in the rain forests. And it's possible that we're getting multiple introductions, or at least more than one, across the region. So if something is going on in the rain forest, that is why the bats are stressed and passing the virus, and then we will see multiple rounds of reintroduction" (Laurie Garrett on Newshour).

Is it time to panic? The answer from health workers responding to an Ebola outbreak in West Africa that began last month [March 2014] is a qualified "no." Transmission requires such close contact that the chance of a widespread epidemic is unlikely. ... Residents of the Mali capital of Bamako took to the streets in anger over reports that several people suspected of having the disease were being held in isolation in their neighborhood. Anger also flared in southern Guinea, where people attacked a health center that was treating patients with Ebola. Senegal has closed its border with Guinea. Morocco has stepped up border controls, and France is asking doctors and hospitals to be on alert for signs of the disease (USA Today).

[These interviews are on audio at the source link. - Mod.JW]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[For comparison with the ebolavirus death toll, in 2012 Guinea reported more than 800 deaths per month (9775 for the year out of more than 280 000 cases) from malaria, see 2 graphs at bottom of page:
http://www.who.int/malaria/publications ... n.pdf?ua=1. - Mod.JW

A ProMED HealthMap for Liberia can be seen at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/54 and for Sierra Leone at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/46.]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 18.04.2014 13:16

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (18): SURVIVORS, MORE CASES
*************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] Survivors
[2] Case numbers rise


******
[1] Survivors
Date: 13 Apr 2014
Source: Tech Times [edited]
http://www.techtimes.com/articles/5482/ ... tbreak.htm


Some patients infected with the Ebola virus in Africa have recovered and been sent back home, WHO authorities have noted. The disease is not always fatal if symptoms are noticed early and patients get proper treatment.

The ebolaviruses cause Ebola virus disease [EVD], which has a high fatality rate of up to 90 percent. Outbreaks of EVD mainly happens in the remote villages of western and central Africa. Ebolaviruses are transmitted to humans from wild animals and spread via direct body contact. No specific treatment or medication is available to cure the deadly disease in animals or in humans, nor is there a vaccine. However, a better chance of recovering from the disease exists if it is identified in the early stages and the patient gets proper medical attention.

WHO is working hard to contain the disease, which has recently affected Guinea and Liberia. Many people have already died due to its outbreak. However, reports suggest [state] that some people who were infected in Guinea have recovered and have been allowed to return to their homes.

"Today's discharge [13 Apr 2014] of patients shows that Ebola is not always fatal. Good early supportive care such as hydration, nutrition and appropriate medication can have a positive impact," said Dr. Tom Fletcher, an infectious disease physician with WHO. He provides clinical care to Ebola patients in Conakry, the capital of Guinea.

"After being triaged at the emergency room, people presenting Ebola-like symptoms are directed to the Department of Infectious Disease. After a more detailed exam, patients meeting the case definition [see link below] are referred to this isolation ward," explained Fletcher.

WHO reports that a few individuals who had symptoms of the disease spent 7 days in the isolation ward at Donka national teaching hospital. However, as the patients were showing no symptoms for 3 days and tested negative for the disease, they were released and sent home. WHO and other medical agencies are trying their best to contain the disease with training of workers who track cases of the disease and training in infection control procedures for health care workers. It is important to stop new infections, especially amongst health workers who are treating patients. Since they are in direct contact with the victims in the early stages, they are more prone to get infected themselves.

WHO also suggests collaboration and effective management between WHO, the Ministry of Health in the country, and their partners, with all taking appropriate steps to respond to the deadly outbreak.

[Byline: Anu Passary]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

*******
[2] Case numbers rise
Date: 14 Apr 2014
Source: Cidrap News [edited]
http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspect ... a-outbreak


Guinea now has 168 Ebola cases with 108 fatalities, and Liberia has 26 cases with 13 deaths.

Guinea's health ministry today [14 Apr 2014] reported 10 more infections compatible with Ebola virus disease (EVD), as hospital officials in the country's capital probe a cluster of cases linked to a funeral, one of which involved a doctor who died from his infection, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa reported today.

The new EVD cases in Guinea lift the country's outbreak total to 168; 7 new deaths have been reported, pushing the fatality number to 108. So far, 71 of the infections have been confirmed by lab tests.

As of 11 Apr 2014, the most recent illness onsets are 10 Apr 2014, in patients from Conakry, the capital, and Guekedou, an area in the forested area of southeastern Guinea, near where the outbreak is thought to have started. The onset date falls well within the disease's 2-21-day incubation period, a sign that that the outbreak is ongoing.

WHO said doctors at the Donka Hospital isolation facility in Conakry are probing a cluster of patients who had funeral contact with a relative who died on 1 Apr 2014 from a suspected malaria infection. Two of the contacts were admitted on 12 Apr 2014 and tested positive for EVD. An internal medicine doctor who had treated the patient and later died is also part of the transmission chain. The WHO said he had symptoms of EVD but no bleeding and that his postmortem samples were positive for the virus.

So far, 16 healthcare workers are among Guinea's EVD cases, and in 11 of those, the infections were lab-confirmed. The WHO said efforts to promote safe burial practices are ongoing and that in response to the cluster, hospital officials are beefing up surveillance, triage procedures, and infection control.

As of 10 Apr 2014, 11 patients were still hospitalized, and 37 had been discharged. Medical teams are still monitoring 396 contacts.

Liberia's health ministry is reporting one more EVD case as of 11 Apr 2014, raising that country's total to 26, according to the WHO. One more patient has died, raising the number of fatalities there to 13. Among the country's 6 lab-confirmed case-patients, 3 are healthcare workers.

The most recent clinical case was detected on 11 Apr 2014, and the most recent lab-confirmed patient was hospitalized on 4 Apr 2014, so 3 people remain hospitalized, and 5 who tested negative were discharged. Health officials are still monitoring 35 contacts.

In Mali, the total number of suspected cases remains at 6: 3 in Bamako, the country's capital, and 3 in 2 different cities in the Koulikoro region. Tests on samples from the patients are underway at the Pasteur Institute in Senegal, and results are expected shortly, the WHO said. Earlier results on 2 other suspected patients from Mali were negative.

[Byline: Lisa Schnirring]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[CNN reports 112 deaths in Guinea on 15 Apr 2014 http://outfront.blogs.cnn.com/2014/04/1 ... -in-guinea. Nine have survived infection in Guinea so far. The stories of the recovery of a young father and a woman teacher are at: http://www.who.int/features/2014/ebola-survivors/en.

"Case definition recommendations for Ebola or Marburg Virus Diseases as of 9 Apr 2014" may be seen at:
http://www.who.int/csr/resources/public ... act-en.pdf. They are highly detailed according to circumstances.

The 2nd report mentions the 2-21 day incubation period. It also discusses the case of the doctor who died with EVD symptoms but "no" bleeding. If he'd been an ordinary patient, he'd probably never have been tested. It makes one wonder how many compatible cases -- but without bleeding -- have been missed? Probably quite a few.

Media reports circulated today [14 Apr 2014] saying that cases are decreasing in Guinea and even that the outbreak is under control. This understandable optimism may be premature, given the recent onset dates of the latest hospital admissions, the nearly 400 contacts still under surveillance, the difficulty of tracing other possible contacts in a city the size of Conakry (population around 2 million), and the sometimes long incubation period. Standard practice is that twice the maximum known incubation period -- in the case of Guinea and Liberia, 2x21=42 days -- should elapse without another case before an outbreak can be declared ended.

A WHO map of West Africa showing affected areas as of 10 Apr 2014 can be seen at:
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/EVD-outbreak.jpg. - Mods.JW/MPP

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/6075.]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 18.04.2014 13:20

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (19): NEW STRAIN, GUINEA NEW CASES, MALI NOT
******************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] Guinea virus new strain
[2] Guinea, new cases
[3]Mali negative


******
[1] Guinea virus new strain
Date: 16 Apr 2014
Source: Associated Press via NBCN News [edited]
http://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-ne ... say-n82461


The ebolavirus that has killed scores of people in Guinea this year [2014] is a new strain, evidence that the disease did not spread there from outbreaks in some other African nations, scientists report.

"The source of the virus is still not known," but it was not imported from nearby countries, said Dr. Stephan Gunther of the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine in Hamburg, Germany. He led an international team of researchers who studied the genetics of the virus and reported results online Wednesday [16 Apr 2014] in the New England Journal of Medicine. The ongoing outbreak has caused panic and killed more than 120 people in West Africa, mostly in Guinea, according to the World Health Organization.

Earlier, health officials had said the Guinea ebolavirus was a Zaire strain, different from the kind that has caused cases in other parts of Africa. The Democratic Republic of Congo used to be called Zaire.

The new research analyzed blood samples from 20 patients in the current outbreak and found the strain was unique. "It is not coming from the Democratic Republic of Congo. It has not been imported to Guinea from that country or from Gabon, where ebolavirus disease also has occurred," Gunther said.

Researchers think the Guinea and other strains evolved in parallel from a recent ancestor virus. The Guinea outbreak likely began last December [2013] or earlier and might have been smoldering for some time unrecognized. The investigation continues to try to identify "the presumed animal source," they write.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The original article is: Baize S. et al. Ebola Outbreak in Guinea -- Preliminary Report, NEJM, Online First, 16 Apr 2014 (DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1404505), available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1404505

Abstract: "In March 2014, the World Health Organization was notified of an outbreak of a communicable disease characterized by fever, severe diarrhea, vomiting, and a high fatality rate in Guinea. Virologic investigation identified Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) as the causative agent. Full-length genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that EBOV from Guinea forms a separate clade in relationship to the known EBOV strains from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Gabon. Epidemiologic investigation linked the laboratory-confirmed cases with the presumed first fatality of the outbreak in December 2013. This study demonstrates the emergence of a new EBOV strain in Guinea." - Mod.MPP]

******
[2] Guinea new cases
Date:17 Apr 2014
Source: Guinea News [machine trans., rev. JW, edited]
http://guineenews.org/2014/04/il-y-a-11 ... amed-keita


"There are 11 new cases of Ebola in Guekedou including 3 dead ," says prefect [mayor] Mohamed Keita.

To the national radio (RTG) the prefect of Guekedou Elhadj Keita Mohamed V, expressed his deep concern over the reluctance of local people to report cases of illness and death related to Ebola . "Hide a sick or dead [victim of] Ebola is like a bomb , and when it explodes , it can do much damage," said the prefect.

According Elhadj Keita Mohamed V , the city of Guekedou is no longer the epicenter of viral haemorrhagic fever, but it is in rural areas where the virus has currently far more victims ... "We even wanted to take steps to prosecute citizens and local authorities that hide the sick and dead", admits the prefect, who personally directs the prefectural crisis committee.

Speaking of the latter cases, Elhadj Mohamed V Keita said that these patients came from the outskirts of Guekedou. "They were 11 patients. Among these, one has tested negative and was released, 10 tested positive and there have been 3 deaths among these 10 cases ", reported the first prefectural authority; admitting anxiety and controversies that have driven these revelations, when there was a semblance of calm.

On the method used locally in case of declaration of illness or death, Keita Mohamed V explained that it is the Red Cross goes into the affected areas to transport the sick or bury the dead. If patients are sent [to hospital] and samples are taken, within 4 hours the results come from the Pasteur Institute of Dakar ... If the case is positive, he is kept in, if negative, released," said the prefect by phone to Amara Camara of national radio RTG.

According to the prefect, in total, 111 suspected cases of Ebola and 71 deaths were officially recorded in Guekedou .
More generally, the national response committee which announced daily reports of suspected cases and deaths related to Ebola , the voice of Dr. Sakoba Keita daily, changed its strategy , it is now announcing that the case of "cure" of Ebola ...

Government figures have convinced President Alpha Condé it is keeping secret the spread of Ebola in the country that foreign countries and airlines continue to be open to Guinea ; whereas this lack of information added to doubts among some Guineans already existed on the real existence of this virus in our country increases the risk behaviors of some of our compatriots .

According to some of our compatriots , " many investors are afraid to come now in Guinea and some foreigners have left the country on tiptoe they have information that would indicate that the chain propagation is not controlled and the Guinean government does not provide reliable information on the actual record from the ravages of Ebola . "

Senegal -- which is represented in the Guinean response to Ebola since the announcement of the existence of this virus in Guinea by a team and equipment of the Pasteur Institute of Dakar has still not reopened its land borders with our country and the weekly sub-regional markets ... the Gambia has suspended all flights to Guinea and airlines like Emirates have suspended their flights to Conakry ...

Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus began spreading in Guinea since the beginning of the year (January 2014 ), but was only officially announced by the Guinean authorities on [21 Mar 2014], 3 months after the 1st cases in the Forest Region. Very soon, this severe fever -- which has no vaccine or drug -- reached the Guinean capital. Yet many compatriots do not always believe in the real existence of this virus in Guinea, which has already led to more than 100 dead, officially ...

[Byline: Nouhou Balde]

--
Communicated by
Mary Marshall, ProMED Corr.

******
[3] Mali negative
Date: 15 Apr 2014
Source: CTV News, Canada [edited]
http://www.ctvnews.ca/health/health-hea ... z2z6DDCYqp


Mali announced Tuesday [15 Apr 2014] that samples from all its suspected cases had tested negative for [ebolavirus disease].

[Byline: Sarah Dilorenzo, AP]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[West Africa is lucky that reagents to the known ebolavirus strains picked up the new one. It is a relief that Mali is in the clear so far.
But the allegations that cases in the Guekedou area of Guinea are being hidden is serious. - Mod.JW

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/50.]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 18.04.2014 13:26

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (20): WHO UPDATE, UNICEF
**********************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] WHO update
[2] Liberia
[3] Sierra Leone
[4] Guinea, doctor deaths


******
[1] WHO update
Date: 16 Apr 2014
Source: WHO Regional Office for Africa [edited]
http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-p ... -2014.html


Guinea
----
As of 18:00 on 16 Apr 2014, the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Guinea has reported a cumulative total of 197 clinical cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD), including 122 deaths. To date, 101 cases have been laboratory confirmed, including 56 deaths; 43 cases (33 deaths) meet the probable case definition for EVD, and 53 cases (33 deaths) are classified as suspected cases; 24 health care workers have been affected with 13 deaths. Clinical cases of EVD have been reported from Conakry (47 cases, including 16 deaths), Guekedou (117/80), Macenta (22/16), Kissidougou (6/5), Dabola (4/4) and Djingaraye (1/1).

Contact tracing activities continue in all affected areas including new contacts generated by an HCW who passed away 3 days ago. In Conakry, 60 community volunteers are assisting the MOH and response partners in following up the 221 contacts currently under medical observation; 7 contacts who developed symptoms have been placed in isolation as a precautionary measure. A total of 249 contacts are being followed in Guekedou, 54 in Macenta 17 in Kissidougou, 63 in Dabola and 2 in Dingaraye.

A total of 36 patients are currently in isolation: 23 in Conakry, 12 in Gueckedou and one in Macenta. Clinical teams from WHO's Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) and Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) are supporting national medical and nursing staff at the Donka Hospital [Conakry] to strengthen patient triage, case management and infection prevention and control (IPC). Training on the safe handling of patients with EVD and the deceased was conducted jointly by the IPC and Logistics teams at the Donka hospital for staff working at the morgue, and for drivers and staff transporting patients in stretchers. A training of trainers activity for the directors of all 20 health centres in Conakry is planned for 17 Apr 2014. IPC training is also scheduled at 2 community health centres tomorrow [17 Apr 2014].

Numbers of cases and contacts remain subject to change due to consolidation of cases, contact and laboratory data, enhanced surveillance and contact tracing activities and the continuing laboratory investigations.

Mali
----
The Ministry of Health (MOH) of Mali has today [16 Apr 2014] reported that the clinical samples on the 6 suspected cases have tested negative for ebolavirus.

The samples were tested at the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Viral Haemorrhagic Fever of the Institut Pasteur, Dakar, Senegal. The samples were also tested using real-time PCR at the newly established, mobile high security laboratory at the SEREFO Center for HIV and TB Training and Research, University of Bamako [Mali]. Malian laboratory experts from the SEREFO Center, the National Institute of Public Health (INRSP), the Centre National d'Appui a la lutte contre la Maladie [National Centre of Support to the fight against Disease] (CNAM), the National Blood Transfusion Centre (CNTS) and the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Science, Techniques and Technology, Bamako (FMOS) were trained in ebolavirus diagnosis by staff of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).

As of 16 Apr 2014, no new suspected cases have been reported in Mali.

Continuing preparedness and response activities include raising awareness among health care workers and the broader community about EVD and reinforcing personal and community-based risk reduction strategies. The need for strict adherence to infection prevention and control measures within health care facilities remains a key intervention.

WHO is supporting the national health authorities of Mali, Guinea and Cote d'Ivoire in the planning of a cross-border meeting on Ebola virus disease. Response partners supporting the MOH include WHO, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MSF, the European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO), Agence Francaise de Developpement [French Development Agency] (AFD), the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the NIH and the UN Children's Rights and Emergency Relief Organization (UNICEF).

Liberia
-------
As of 16 Apr 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Liberia has reported a cumulative total of 27 clinical cases of EVD, including 13 deaths attributed to EVD. One new suspected case reported yesterday [15 Apr 2014] from Nimba County has been laboratory confirmed as a case of Lassa fever; 2 patients remain hospitalised, and 33 contacts remain under medical observation. The MOHSW commissioned a new ebolavirus laboratory today [16 Apr 2014] in collaboration with Metabiota.

The MOHSW, in collaboration with WHO and the GOARN team in Liberia, has conducted visits to the John F. Kennedy Medical Center in Monrovia and the Redemption Hospital, New Kru Town in Montserrado County, and conducted the 1st training [course] in case management, triage and infection prevention and control.

Sierra Leone
---------
On 15 Apr 2014, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MOHS) provided a consolidated report of surveillance activities conducted in that country from 19 Mar 2014 onwards. A total of 12 suspected cases have been identified during that period; 2 previously reported suspected EVD deaths occurred in individuals from one family who died in Guinea and whose bodies were repatriated to Sierra Leone for burial. All of the 15 case contacts have completed 21 days of medical follow-up and have remained well.

The Metabiota laboratory team working at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Isolation Unit have received and tested clinical samples from 11 of the suspected cases using 2 different real-time PCR protocols for Ebola Zaire, other viral haemorrhagic fevers and important locally endemic pathogens. All of the samples have tested negative for ebolavirus and the other pathogens included in the test panel.

Follow up on rumours of EVD cases and active case finding is ongoing in Sierra Leone. Metabiota in collaboration with the MOHS have conducted training of trainers at the Kenema Lassa Fever unit on EVD preparedness and response for 75 clinicians and nurses from the main referral government, private and mission hospitals in the 13 districts. Multimedia community sensitisation activities are also continuing.

WHO does not recommend that any travel or trade restrictions be applied to Guinea, Liberia, Mali or Sierra Leone based on the current information available for this event.

[See Sierra Leone ban on repatriation of dead bodies in [3] below. - Mod.JW]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[2] Liberia
Date: 16 Apr 2014
Source: UNICEF-Liberia Ebola Virus Disease: SitRep 16 [edited]
http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.in ... pr2014.pdf


Some Key Points [check source for full list]
- One additional suspected case of Ebola was reported in Saclapea, Nimba County, raising the total number of suspected, probable and confirmed Ebola cases to 27, including 13 Ebola-related deaths, for a case fatality rate of 48 percent.
- The National Reference Lab tested its 1st Ebola sample yesterday [15 Apr 2014].
- UNICEF deployed 2 field coordinators and a 10-person team specialized in interpersonal communications to Lofa County, where they will work with communities to increase awareness of Ebola.
- With logistical support from Samaritan's Purse, UNICEF air-lifted urgently needed tarps, sprayers, chlorine and other supplies to Lofa County for use in completing the isolation unit at Foya Hospital. The agency will air-lift additional supplies later this week.
- UNICEF's estimated funding requirement for Ebola-related C4D, Health and WASH* interventions currently stands at approximately USD 500 000 for the period from 21 Mar to 21 Jun 2014. The estimated funding gap is USD 370 000.
*see below.

Situation Overview
- Since 14 Apr 2014, the total number of suspected, probable and confirmed cases of Ebola has risen to 27, while total Ebola-related deaths remains steady at 13.* The case fatality rate is 48 percent. The additional (suspected) case was identified in Saclapea, Nimba County.
- The total confirmed Ebola cases stands at 6.
- Lofa County remains the epicentre of the Ebola outbreak, particularly Foya District. Lofa is also the county with the highest numbers of reported suspected, probable and confirmed Ebola cases (10) and Ebola-related deaths (9). All 6 of the confirmed Ebola cases also originated in Lofa, though 2 of these patients travelled to Margibi County after contracting the virus.
- The National Reference Lab (NRL)** in Margibi County ran its 1st test on a sample collected in-country. The sample, which came from Margibi County, tested negative for Ebola. The NRL Ebola testing facility is expected to be commissioned today [16 Apr 2014] by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW). Its operations will significantly increase the speed at which Ebola samples can be tested, which will, in turn, improve data on suspected, probable and confirmed cases.

*This includes the 2 persons who were diagnosed in Liberia but died in Guinea early in the outbreak.
**It will be recalled that the Ebola testing facility at the NRL is being supported by an interagency team from the United States comprised of the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of Defense (DoD).

UNICEF Response
Through its Communications and Child Survival Sections, UNICEF continues to provide critical communications for development (C4D); water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); and health sector support to the national Ebola response. This work is performed in coordination with the relevant national committees and working groups: namely the Social Mobilization Committee of the NTF, which was previously referred to as the Health Promotion Committee; the Case Management Committee of the NTF; and the WASH Working Group. Updates on specific UNICEF activities include the following:

Communications for Development (C4D):
As a member of the Social Mobilization Committee of the NTF, UNICEF assisted in finalizing the draft national communications strategy for the Ebola response. This national strategy will also guide UNICEF's work.

UNICEF deployed the 2 field coordinators and the 10-person team contracted from the interpersonal communications (IPC) firm to Lofa County. The coordinators were deployed yesterday (15 Apr 2014), while the IPC team left today.

The coordinators will be based in Foya, the epicentre of the outbreak, and Voinjama, the county capital. Together with the County Health Team (CHT) and partner organizations, they will continue the ongoing work with the general Community Health Volunteers (gCHVs) to raise awareness and increase understanding of Ebola at the community-level. They will also enhance support to local community radio stations in Lofa County to ensure that
(1) Ebola messages are being regularly broadcast, and
(2) the stations have the support needed (e.g., fuel for generators) to stay on air for as long as possible.
The coordinators will work closely with the Lofa CHT and will be expected to send daily reports to the UNICEF Monrovia office.

The 10-person IPC team will be divided between the following district capitals: Foya (4), Voinjama (2), Kolahun (2), and Zorzor (2). They will focus on these major towns, as well as nearby urban and peri-urban areas.

Both the coordinators and the IPC team will target schools, churches, mosques and marketplaces, and will liaise with traditional leaders, healers and other pivotal community members. The idea is to empower individual Liberians with the knowledge, resources and health facility contacts to keep Ebola from ravaging their communities.

UNICEF finalized the 2 school and community-friendly posters on Ebola, as well as a flip chart for use by the IPC team in their outreach in Lofa County.

All UNICEF-supported mass media activities are ongoing, including work with local community radio stations and key national stations.

Child survival (wash and health):
On 16 Apr 2014, with the logistical support of Samaritan's Purse, UNICEF air-lifted a new batch of urgently needed supplies of chlorine, plastic tarpaulins, sprayers and other materials to Lofa, where MSF is providing support for emergency health services at the isolation unit in Foya Hospital. The delivery came a day after MSF requested this support at the NTF meeting on 15 Apr 2014.

By the end of the week, UNICEF will deliver additional supplies requested by MSF for the isolation unit in Foya, including mattresses and blankets.

National Task Force Updates
Budget and donor support:

The MoHSW's 3-month Ebola response budget still stands at USD 2.5 million. It covers all 15 counties in Liberia but prioritizes Lofa, Bong, Nimba, Margibi, Montserrado and Grand Cape Mount. The MoHSW also intends to scale up efforts in Gbarpolu, if/when possible. The Ministry of Finance has appropriated USD 250 000 for the budget.

The NTF committed to present a mapping of partners' support provided to date at the next NTF meeting on Fri 18 Apr 2014.

Laboratory and epidemiology:
The establishment of the Ebola testing facility at the NRL has already helped screen alleged cases of Ebola. As mentioned in the overview, one sample from Margibi was tested at the center, and the results were negative, ruling out the virus.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[3] Sierra Leone
Date: 16 Apr 2014
Source: Sierra Express Media [edited]
http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/archives/66755


The Deputy Minister of Trade and Industry (DMTI) Alie Mansaray has said due to the threatening nature of Ebola, especially in the neighboring countries of Guinea and Liberia, the government has banned the bringing of dead bodies to be buried in Sierra Leone, especially from Guinea and Liberia.

This disclosure was made in the conference room of the Ministry of Trade and Industry as both the Ministry of Health and Sanitation and Trade Ministry officials engaged petty [small] traders on Ebola issues on Wed 9 Apr 2014.

The Deputy Trade Minister further said that it is no secret that a strange disease (Ebola), though not yet in Sierra Leone, is terrorizing our neighboring sister countries of Guinea and Liberia, which, he said, is very threatening to us as a government and the country as a whole.

Their stake in the issue is because the Trade Ministry is directly in contact with petty traders who go on a daily basis to Guinea and Liberia on business purposes, and, therefore, they held the meeting as an awareness raising campaign, especially for traders who used to go to these countries.

The deputy minister emphasized that Ebola has no cure but can be prevented. He cataloged the signs and symptoms as heavy fever, vomiting, diarrhea, throat ache, weakness, rash in various part of the body except the face, and the oozing of blood from various openings like ears, nose and mouth.

The Technical Expert in the Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Mr. Harold Thomas, expounded on the International Health Regulations (IHR). He confirmed that MOHS has Public Health Specialists all over the country to monitor the issue. He cautioned that Ebola is a severe infectious disease which is spread through fruit bats, and, therefore, people should stop eating bats, "Bat Mot" fruits, monkeys, chimpanzees, and all wild animals. He further said that people should stop eating animals found dead.

"People should go to health facilities immediately when they experience sudden fever, diarrhea or vomiting; this illness can also be contracted through body fluid contact like blood and urine," said Thomas.

Mr. Lansana Conteh of MOHS emphatically cautioned Sierra Leoneans to start practicing the frequent washing of hands with soap and water, to also minimize hand shake [This is perfectly safe if the person is not sick. - Mod.JW], minimize the touching of sick people and the washing of dead bodies especially without hand gloves, also avoiding the eating of bush meats, bats, and fruits partly eaten by birds.

He further said that in case of any suspected death, the people in the compound of the deceased will be isolated for 21 days for medical checks before allowing them to rejoin the general populace [This is a good way to discourage people from reporting a death. - Mod.JW].

Present at the meeting were the Chief Director and Professional Head of Trade and Industry Mr. Ahmed Akar Ahmed and the Director of Commerce and Industry Mr. Charles M. Thompson.

[Byline: Tamba M. Musa]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[4] Guinea, doctor deaths
Date: 16 Apr 2014
Source: Guinean News [in French, machine trans. & Mod.JW, edited]
http://guineenews.org/2014/04/fievre-he ... re-medecin


Exactly one week ago, on Wed 9 Apr 2014, the Guinean government gave more statistics on the evolution of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever. However, families and physicians continue to mourn the victims swept away by this serious disease without a vaccine or cure.

According to our information, there were 9 new suspected cases of Ebola detected only yesterday ["There are 11 new cases of Ebola in Guekedou including 3 dead," says prefect [mayor] Mohamed Keita in post (19) listed at the bottom of this post. - Mod.JW].

One of National Donka Hospital's emergency physicians, Dr. Sidiki Kaba, died Sun 13 Apr 2014 after having been in contact with a patient, without knowing that [the patient] was contaminated. Dr. Siaka Camara, a neurologist at Kipe also lost his life yesterday [15 Apr 2014] after being in contact with a patient.

Apart from these known cases, it is reported that more than 20 physicians are currently isolated in National Donka Hospital who have been in contact with cases that ultimately proved to be ebolavirus cases. And several other [doctors] are "fugitives," refusing to be isolated, since they had had risky contacts.

According to confidential sources, the government changed tactics, particularly in its communications in the face of the deadly fever. From now on, only statistics of people "cured" will be divulged and not the new suspected cases or deaths, even though those are not lacking. ... But, in the opinion of some doctors, refusal to inform citizens increases risky behavior and further exposes citizens [to infection], most of whom have never believed in the real existence of the Ebola virus.

Today [16 Apr 2014], in the absence of sincere, serious and convincing communication, rumors have completely taken over.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

[The number of doctors in isolation and, therefore, unable to care for patients is staggering. It is commendable that so many health workers (HW) have stuck to their posts in view of their high death rates. During the plague scare in Surat, India in 1994, thousands of people, including most doctors and other HWs fled the city; see ProMED archived post "Plague - India (MMWR) 19941025.0062."

Past experience has shown that withholding information on the progress of an epidemic is counter-productive and only makes the panic worse. - Mod.JW

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/6075.]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika - Information für Traveller

Beitragvon Birgitt » 19.04.2014 10:07

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (21): ECDC TRAVEL ADVICE
**********************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

Date: Fri 18 Apr 2014
Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention & Control (ECDC) [edited]
http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publicatio ... 90&ID=1075


Ebola travel advice
-------------------
Available as PDF
This document is free of charge.

ebola-traveller-advice-leaflet-18-apr-2014.pdf


Abstract
--------
There is currently an outbreak of Ebola [virus disease] in Guinea and Liberia. This document gives some advice for travellers arriving in, or departing from affected areas.

The document has been translated into all [24] official EU languages and been distributed to the Members of the Health Security Committee.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[This should be very useful to travelers to and from West Africa and Europe. - Mod.JW]
Du hast keine ausreichende Berechtigung, um die Dateianhänge dieses Beitrags anzusehen.
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 20.04.2014 20:41

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (22): WHO, CONTROL
****************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

[1] Ebola virus disease, West Africa - update
Date: Sat 19 Apr 2014
Source: WHO Global Alert and Response [edited]
http://who.int/csr/don/don_updates/en


Ebola virus disease, West Africa - update
-----------------------------------------
Guinea
------
As of 18:00 on 17 Apr 2014, the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Guinea has reported a cumulative total of 203 clinical cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD), including 129 deaths. To date, 158 patients have been tested for ebolavirus infection and 109 cases have been laboratory confirmed, including 61 deaths.

In addition, 41 cases (34 deaths) meet the probable case definition for EVD and 53 cases (34 deaths) are classified as suspected cases; 24 health care workers (HCW) have been affected (18 confirmed), with 15 deaths (11 confirmed).

Clinical cases of EVD have been reported from Conakry (50 cases, including 20 deaths), Guekedou (120/83), Macenta (22/16), Kissidougou (6/5), Dabola (4/4) and Djingaraye (1/1). Laboratory confirmed cases and deaths have been reported from Conakry (36 cases, including 15 deaths), Guekedou (58/34), Macenta (13/10), Kissidougou (1/1) and Dabola (1/1).

These updated figures include 4 new cases isolated on 17 Apr 2014, one of whom is laboratory confirmed, and 4 deaths among existing cases; 3 of the deaths were patients with confirmed EVD; 29 patients are currently in isolation in Conakry (17), Guekedou (11) and Macenta (1), while 15 patients who recovered from their illness were discharged from hospital. The female:male ratio among confirmed cases is 1.2 : 1. The median age of 198 clinical cases for whom the age is known is 35 years and the age breakdown is 0-19 years (11 percent), 20-59 years (72 percent) and 60 and over (11 percent).

Contact tracing activities continue in all affected areas. A total of 230 contacts are currently under medical observation and 53 have completed their 21 days of follow-up; 7 contacts who developed symptoms continue in isolation as a precautionary measure.

Efforts to increase public health awareness continue. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Guinea convened a meeting with a number of diplomatic missions on 18 Apr 2014 where the Minister of Health, supported by the WHO Representative, WHO Country Office for Guinea, and WHO EVD Response Coordinator, briefed the meeting. WHO and the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network are in the process of deploying additional experts to support activities in case management, infection prevention and control, contact tracing, social mobilization and psychosocial support.

Numbers of cases and contacts remain subject to change due to consolidation of cases, contact and laboratory data, enhanced surveillance and contact tracing activities and the continuing laboratory investigations.

Liberia
-------
In Liberia, the epidemiological situation remains the same. Intensive surveillance activities and other preventive measures are ongoing. No new laboratory confirmed cases of EVD have been reported from Liberia today.

WHO does not recommend that any travel or trade restrictions be applied to Guinea or Liberia based on the current information available for this event.

Additional information can be found at SITREP 2 Ebola Virus Disease, West Africa, 17 Apr 2014: http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-p ... -2014.html.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

*******
[2] Controlling an EVD outbreak
Date: Wed 16 Apr 2014
Source: The Economist [summ., edited]
http://www.economist.com/blogs/economis ... laoutbreak


Sudden and deadly though it is, EVD can be contained, for 3 reasons:

1) The 1st is transmission: the virus is not airborne. It is transferred only through direct contact with someone who is visibly sick. "It's not that one person enters a bus, and half of the bus is infected," explains Dr Matthias Borchert of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Because the early symptoms of ebola resemble more common diseases, reported infections quickly grow. Following the recent outbreak, suspected cases were flagged in Ghana, Sierra Leone and Mali, before the patients later tested negative (a few results from Mali have not yet been returned).

2) The 2nd reason is preparation. The WHO, Medecins Sans Frontieres and ministries of health devote tremendous resources to building wards, isolating suspected patients and tracking their contacts. "Even basic precautions reduce the risk of transmission," says Barbara Knust of the Atlanta-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

3) Finally, EVD is treatable. Although no cure exists, the services available in an intensive care unit can help a patient beat the bug.

In any outbreak, rumours spread quickly, conspiracy theories are rife and junk treatments proposed (a mixture of raw onions and Nescafe is one example currently doing the rounds). So reliable information is crucial. Banning travel and closing borders can push the disease underground; both are discouraged by the WHO.

According to doctors, one new aspect of the Guinea outbreak has been patients' use of mobile phones, which makes isolation wards a bit less awful and provides succour to families, encouraging communities to work with health providers rather than against them. With a continued strong response, the current outbreak can be stopped before it becomes an epidemic.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

*******
[3] Canada emergency contribution
Date: Fri 18 Apr 2014
Source: Northumberland View [edited]
http://www.northumberlandview.ca/index. ... &sid=28111


Canada Announces Emergency Contribution to Fight Ebola Virus Outbreak
---------------------------------------------------------------------
The Honourable Christian Paradis, Minister of International Development and La Francophonie, the Honourable John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and the Honourable Rona Ambrose, Minister of Health, today announced a joint funding contribution of CAD 1 285 000 [about USD 1 165 427] to address the current outbreak of the deadly ebolavirus disease [EVD] in West Africa.

"In a situation like the current EVD outbreak in West Africa, it is of critical importance to implement measures to end the chain of transmission," said Minister Paradis. "We must ensure strong surveillance and investigation as well as a coordinated response to new or suspected cases. Canada's support will play a critical role in responding to and preventing the spread of this deadly disease."

"Biological threats such as the current EVD outbreak do not recognize borders," said Minister Baird. "They represent a global problem that requires coordinated international action across multiple sectors, including health and security. Canada's contribution underscores the importance of obtaining cooperation from various sectors to help prevent, detect and rapidly respond to infectious diseases."

"The Government of Canada welcomes the World Health Organization's rapid efforts to address this outbreak of EVD, one of the most virulent diseases known to humans," said Minister Ambrose. "Canada is pleased to join other countries in this response and urges other donors to support the WHO."

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Guinea reports 8 newly confirmed cases with 5 more deaths in 24 hours.

The reasons control is possible are clearly spelled out in the 2nd report. It is emphasized that banning travel and closing borders can push the disease underground. It is interesting to learn that cell phones help to alleviate stress in patients held in isolation.

Canada understands that the outbreak is not over yet, and more resources are needed to beat it. Canada is evidently recalling its sad experience with SARS, when it suffered more cases than any other country after a case was imported. - Mod.JW

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/45.]
Birgitt
Moderator
 
Beiträge: 24287
Registriert: 02.08.2005 21:52
Wohnort: NRW / Südl. Rheinland

VorherigeNächste

Zurück zu Reisemedizin

Wer ist online?

Mitglieder in diesem Forum: 0 Mitglieder und 0 Gäste