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Ebola - Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone und Mali

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Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 13.08.2014 16:37

Die Ebola-Epidemie in Westafrika ist ein "internationaler Gesundheitsnotfall". Doch woher stammt dieses tödliche Virus, wie schnell breitet es sich aus und welche Hoffnung gibt es, es einzudämmen? ARD-Korrespondenten aus dem Studio Nairobi berichten aus den betroffenen Ländern Liberia, Sierra Leone und Guinea.

Kampf gegen Ebola - Weltspiegel Extra
13.08.2014 - tagesschau Video

Die Afrikanische Union hat die Entscheidung der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) zum Einsatz kaum erprobter Präparate gegen Ebola in Westafrika begrüßt. "Es handelt sich um eine Krankheit, an der bis zu 90 Prozent aller Patienten sterben - und wenn es eine Behandlungsmöglichkeit gibt, dann sollte sie auch benutzt werden", sagte der AU-Kommissar für Soziales, Mustapha Sidiki Kaloko, in Addis Abeba. Voraussetzung sei, dass die Patienten über die möglichen Vor- und Nachteile aufgeklärt würden und ihr Einverständnis zu der Behandlung gäben.

AU für nicht zugelassene Ebola-Mittel
13.08.2014 - tagesschau

Gruß
Birgitt
Birgitt
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Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 14.08.2014 21:18

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (126): WHO, PAHO, SIERRA LEONE, MORE
**********************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] WHO update
[2] PAHO: Americas preparedness
[3] Sierra Leone: official
[4] Index case
[5] WHO: Kenya at high risk
[6] Media reports - Wed 13 Aug 2014


******
[1] WHO update
Date: Wed 13 Aug 2014
Source: WHO Global Alert and Response (GAR) Disease Outbreak News (DONs) [summ., edited]
http://who.int/csr/don/2014_08_13_ebola/en


Ebola virus disease update -- West Africa
-----------------------------------------
Between 10-11 Aug 2014, a total of 128 new cases of Ebola virus disease (laboratory-confirmed, probable, and suspect cases) as well as 56 deaths were reported from Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.

Contact tracing in Guinea, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone has resulted in a range between 94 percent and 98 percent of contacts of EVD cases being identified and followed-up. In Liberia, efforts are underway to strengthen contact tracing, but help is needed in this area. The Liberian Army has also recently placed a 3rd province under quarantine as part of the ongoing effort to stop transmission of EVD.

On 11 Aug 2014, WHO convened a panel of medical ethicists, scientific experts, and lay people from the affected countries to consider and assess the ethical implications for clinical decision-making of the potential use of unregistered interventions. [A report of the meeting was posted on ProMED-mail archive no 20140812.2682604. - Mod.JW]

On the operational side, WHO is finalizing its strategic operations response plan and expects to share this with countries and partners in the coming days. Mapping is also underway to develop an operational picture in order to coordinate and move people and materials to areas of greatest need.

WHO does not recommend any travel or trade restrictions be applied except in cases where individuals have been confirmed or are suspected of being infected with EVD or where individuals have had contact with cases of EVD. (Contacts do not include properly-protected health-care workers and laboratory staff.) Temporary recommendations from the Emergency Committee with regard to actions to be taken by countries can be found at http://who.int/mediacentre/news/stateme ... 0140808/en.

[A table showing confirmed, probable, and suspect cases and deaths from Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone, as of 11 Aug 2014, shows totals of 1975 cases and 1069 deaths.]

The total number of cases is subject to change due to ongoing reclassification, retrospective investigation, and availability of laboratory results. Data reported in the Disease Outbreak News are based on official information reported by Ministries of Health.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Marianne Hopp

******
[2] PAHO: Americas preparedness
Date: Wed 13 Aug 2014
Source: Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) [edited]
http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option ... 99&lang=en


Ebola virus disease (EVD), implications of introduction in the Americas
Corrigendum -- 13 Aug 2014
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Summary
-------
Given the current situation of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) advises its Member States to remain vigilant for potential introduction of EVD in the Americas, to
- raise the awareness and knowledge of health care providers and
- strengthen the implementation of standard precautions for infection prevention and control in health care facilities at all levels.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[3] Sierra Leone: official
Date: Wed 13 Aug 2014
Source: Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Emergency Operations Center (EOC) press release [edited]
The following message came from the ProMED-mail submit info form at http://www.promedmail.org


Ebola virus disease, Sierra Leone
---------------------------------
As of today, 13 Aug 2014, we have a total of 191 patients who have survived Ebola virus disease and subsequently been discharged. The total number of new confirmed cases is 11: Kenema 9 and Port Loko 2.

The total number of cumulative number of deaths is 264 and cumulative number of confirmed cases is 717 with Kailahun 378, Kenema 259; Kono 1; Kambia 1; Bombali 7; Tonkolili 2; Port Loko 24; Pujehun 3; Bo 22; Moyamba 5; Bonthe 1; Western Area Urban [Freetown] 13; Western Area Rural 1. As of today, Koinadugu district is the only district that has not registered confirmed cases of EVD in Sierra Leone.

The cumulative number of probable cases is 37 and probable deaths 34 while the total cumulative number of suspected cases is 46 and suspected deaths is 5.

The Presidential Task Force chaired by His Excellency the President, Dr Ernest Bai Koroma has been expanded to include Development Partners, Political Parties; the Sierra Leone Bar Association; House of Parliament; and Civil Societies. The Presidential Task Force met today [13 Aug 2014] at the State House where the President reminded the partners about the funding gap in the National Strategic Response plans and urged all partners to meet their commitments made to speed up the implementation of the Response plan.

The Emergency Operation Center (EOC) has rolled out a strategy to strengthen the EOCs at national and district level. To this end, the composition of the EOC at national level has been reconstituted and downsized for effective national coordination, decision making, and leadership. Accordingly, the EOCs at district levels have also been strengthened with the deployment of senior officials from the Ministry of Health and Sanitation head office to be based in specific districts to coordinate and provide support to the district EOCs.

The EOC also decided that the Deputy Minister of Health and Sanitation 1 Dr Abu Bakar Fofanah be deployed to Kenema to help strengthen the coordination of EOC operations. In addition, 2 senior Directors have also been deployed to Port Loko and Bo districts to exercise similar functions.

For more information please contact: District Health Management Team at District level
National level - Directorate of Disease Prevention and Control: <dpcsurveillance@gmail.com>
Mobile: +23276913000

--
Sidie Yahya Tunis
Director, Information Communication Technology (ICT)
Ministry of Health and Sanitation
Sierra Leone
<tunis@health.gov.sl>

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[13 Aug 2014: in Sierra Leone, a doctor who treated patients infected with EVD has died, reports the BBC's Umaru Fofana from the capital, Freetown. Dr Modupeh Cole is the 2nd Sierra Leonean doctor to die of the disease.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-28769678. - Mod.JW]

******
[4] Index case
Date: Wed 13 Aug 2014
Source: New England Journal of Medicine [edited]
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1404505


Ref: Baize S, Pannetier D, Oestereich L, et al: Emergence of Zaire Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea -- Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2014. [Epub ahead of print]
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract
--------
In March 2014, the World Health Organization was notified of an outbreak of a communicable disease characterized by fever, severe diarrhea, vomiting, and a high fatality rate in Guinea. Virologic investigation identified Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) as the causative agent. Full-length genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that EBOV from Guinea forms a separate clade in relationship to the known EBOV strains from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Gabon. Epidemiologic investigation linked the laboratory-confirmed cases with the presumed 1st fatality of the outbreak in December 2013. This study demonstrates the emergence of a new EBOV strain in Guinea.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The full article is available at the source URL above.

[9 Aug 2014: scientists investigating the source of the outbreak believe that the latest outbreak can be traced back to a 2-year-old boy in a village in Gueckedou, in southeastern Guinea, who died on 6 Dec 2013 a few days after he fell ill with a fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. From there, the disease reportedly spread to kill the child's mother, 3-year-old sister, and grandmother, before transferring to a health care worker from Gueckedou. The team of epidemiologists traced the disease by "reviewing hospital documentations and interviews with affected families, patients with suspected disease, and inhabitants of villages in which cases occurred."
http://ind.pn/1kwirtB. - Mod.JW]

******
[5] WHO: Kenya at high risk
Date: Wed 13 Aug 2014
Source: BBC News [edited]
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-28769678


Ebola outbreak: Kenya at high risk, warns WHO
---------------------------------------------
WHO has classified Kenya as a "high-risk" country for the spread of the deadly ebolavirus. Kenya is vulnerable because it is a major transport hub, with many flights from West Africa, a WHO official said. This is the most serious warning to date by the WHO that EVD could spread to East Africa.

The WHO's country director for Kenya, Custodia Mandlhate, said the East African state was "classified in group 2; at high risk of transmission." Health checks at the main airport in the capital, Nairobi, have been stepped up in recent weeks. The Kenyan government said it would not ban flights from the 4 countries hit by EVD... Kenya receives more than 70 flights a week from West Africa.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[6] Media reports - Wed 13 Aug 2014

Why Patrick Sawyer travelled to Nigeria -- wife
-----------------------------------------------
The widow of the late Patrick Sawyer, the Liberian who brought Ebola virus disease into Nigeria, has defended her husband's decision to travel to Africa's most populous country, saying he did so in desperate search for a country with better healthcare system than his own [Liberia]... Mr Sawyer had no trust in the healthcare system in Liberia and had possibly headed to Nigeria with the hope of receiving better treatment for his ailment. Mrs Sawyer shared her thoughts on her Facebook profile ... [more]
https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/166 ... Jg8Da.dpuf

Nigeria
-------
The West African regional body, ECOWAS, said one of its officials, JAA, had died of EVD in Nigeria. The 36-year-old had been in contact with Patrick Sawyer, the Liberian government employee who was the 1st to be killed by the virus in Nigeria on 25 Jul 2014, ECOWAS said in a statement. Mr Sawyer had flown in from Liberia, when he was diagnosed with EVD after collapsing at the airport in Lagos, the biggest city in sub-Saharan Africa. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-28769678

The nurse who died after contracting Ebola virus disease from index case -- Liberian Patrick Sawyer -- refused to heed a warning against travel and has caused the quarantine of 21 persons in Enugu. Labaran Maku, Nigeria's Information Minister, stated that 10 out of the 198 persons identified as primary and secondary contacts with the late Liberian carrier, Patrick Sawyer, have tested positive to the virus. Of the 198 persons under surveillance, 177 of them are in Lagos while 21 are in Enugu... The family of the late nurse and others who had direct contact with her are being quarantined in other stations across the state. "All those who had primary contact have been quarantined. Secondary contacts have also been traced. So far the number of people that have been traced is 198. Out of this number, 177 are in Lagos. Some are in quarantine, some are being monitored by health specialists. All those with whom the nurse was in contact, including her husband, are under quarantine. The medical team has been able to trace all those who made contact with her," Mr Maku said... [more]
https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/166 ... Kqhe3.dpuf

Shipping line precautions
-----------------------
Maersk Line suspends shore-leave in Ebola-hit countries. Maersk Line will not stop calling at West African ports stricken by the Ebola virus disease [EVD], but the company will suspend shore-leave -- which is the leave that professional sailors get to spend on dry land -- as well as make some changes to crews in Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, Lloyd's Loading List reports. The decision coincides with the World Health Organisation (WHO) declaring the outbreak a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" (PHEIC), affecting trade and travel. The global shipping organisations voiced their concern as well over the outbreak of EVD and its affect on shipping industry. They also issued guidelines on the risks posed to ships' crews calling in countries affected by EVD.
http://www.freshplaza.com/article/12517 ... -countries

Korea
-----
Kwon Joon-wook of the Ministry of Health and Welfare said during an EVD forum hosted by the International Vaccine Institute in Seoul, "If any Koreans living in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, or Nigeria test positive for EVD and wish to be treated in Korea, there may be resistance from the public, but the government will make utmost efforts to have them treated here." The government has already prepared quarantine facilities in 17 hospitals around the country to treat EVD patients, but no preparations have been made for transporting them back to Korea.
http://english.chosun.com/site/data/htm ... 01684.html

Other news
----------
Canada said it would donate up to 1000 doses of an experimental EVD vaccine to help fight the outbreak.

In Nigeria, Africa's most populous state, a 3rd EVD-related death was reported on Tue [12 Aug 2014].

Germany has ordered all its citizens, except health workers, to leave Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, the 3 states where the outbreak has been the deadliest.

Ghana has delayed the opening of universities and colleges by at least 2 weeks to put in place measures to screen students arriving from EVD-hit countries.

The African Union has pledged USD 1 million (GBP 600 000) to help fight the disease.
http://www.myjoyonline.com/world/2014/A ... ns-who.php

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[ProMED-mail acknowledges reports posted on the Nigerian Biomedical and Life Scientists Yahoo Group.

WHO/CDC map of EVD outbreak as of 9 Aug 2014:
http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/7 ... detail.gif
- Mod.JW

A continuously updated HealthMap Ebola outbreak map is available at http://healthmap.org/ebola/. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]
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Ebola in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 15.08.2014 11:15

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (127): GUINEA, SCREENING, MORE
****************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this posting:
[1] Guinea: state of emergency
[2] Temperature screening
[3] Nepal: preparedness
[4] Ebola virus disease compendium
[5] Media reports


******
[1] Guinea: state of emergency
Date: Thu 14 Aug 2014
Source: RIA Novosti [edited]
http://en.ria.ru/world/20140814/1919859 ... Ebola.html


Guinean President Alpha Conde late on Wednesday [13 Aug 2014] declared a national health emergency over the Ebola virus disease outbreak, according to Agence France-Presse. "The World Health Organisation has declared a global health emergency over Ebola [virus disease]. Considering that Guinea is a signatory to the WHO constitution I declare Ebola [virus disease] a national health emergency in Guinea," Conde said in a statement.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Guinea was the 1st West African country to declare the Ebola outbreak, and now the last of the 4 affected countries to declare a national health emergency. - Mod.JW]

*******
[2] Temperature screening
Date: Thu 14 Aug 2014
Source: Liberian Observer [edited]
http://www.liberianobserver.com/news/nu ... -thousands


The Government of Liberia has begun testing citizens of 8 counties [districts] for the deadly Ebola disease. This testing of individuals is meant to control the spread from counties believed to be highly infected with the killer disease. Several counties, including Bomi, Lofa, Grand Cape Mount, Grand Bassa, Margibi Montserrado and Grand Gedeh, have been controlled to regulate the movement of people going in and out of those areas.

The Daily Observer recently discovered that the ... temperatures of those leaving from one area to another were tested by nurses assigned at various checkpoints using only 3 [clinical] thermometers. The testing process has been questioned by some segments of the Liberian society, including foreign nationals who visited Bomi over the weekend. Bomi County is among 8 counties quarantined by the Liberian government.

In an interview with the Daily Observer over the weekend [9-10 Aug 2014], Mr. Shang Guan, a Chinese national, said the intention of the government is good but is also dangerous to the health of citizens and foreigners alike. Mr. Guan refused to be tested with any of the 3 thermometers used by the county health team at the Bomi checkpoint. He said the use of manual thermometers to check the temperature of travelers as a means of containing the spread of the deadly virus was not the right thing to do. Experts have said that one way the deadly Ebola virus is spread is through contact with bodily fluids. Thermometers are either inserted in the mouth or under the arm, both of which involve the transfer of saliva and sweat respectively.

According to him, ... it would be prudent for authorities at the Health Ministry to use advanced rather than standard thermometers that do not involve physical contact with individuals. "I was worried about taking the test because even if you have malaria your temperature will be high and even if that person has EVD, it might spread to the others just by the use of so few thermometers," Mr. Guan said. He disclosed that what was even more scary to him was that all those who were being tested used the same 3 thermometers, with nurses having physical contact with travelers. Such a situation is highly risky for the people of Liberia. The Chinese national hailed Liberians as well as foreigners alike who have cooperated with the testing, but suggested that the limited thermometers being used must be well sanitized to avoid endangering the lives of others.

Another Liberian, Oscar Dolo, who was seen at the checkpoint, said the process was poorly coordinated by the county health authorities. He added that the process was hampering their free movement from one area to another. "I came since this morning and spent over 2 hours at this checkpoint. Those health workers who were to come early were the last to arrive, keeping us here for hours."

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

[Airport passenger temperature control photos:
Sierra Leone:
http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/arc ... 93158b.jpg

Lagos, Nigeria:
http://gdb.voanews.com/EBB1F12E-BA35-4C ... 24_s_n.jpg

Abuja, Nigeria:
http://www.telesurtv.net/__export/14078 ... 483346.jpg

Cote d'Ivoire: Infrared digital laser thermometers in use at the Felix Houphouet Boigny international airport in Abidjan, 13 Aug 2014:
http://s4.reutersmedia.net/resources/r/ ... XMPEA7D0O9

Taiwan:
http://wodumedia.com/wp-content/uploads ... 60x540.jpg

South Korea, Incheon airport:
http://d2yhexj5rb8c94.cloudfront.net/si ... s_Kand.jpg

South Korea, more:
http://www.ctvnews.ca/polopoly_fs/1.194 ... /image.jpg

Remote laser thermometers are preferable to models inserted into the ear in the present epidemic. - Mod.JW]

******
[3] Nepal: preparedness
Date: Wed 13 Aug 2014
Source: eKantipur Nepal [edited]
http://www.ekantipur.com/2014/08/13/top ... 93509.html
Via ProMED Submit Info form: click on tab at top of http://www.promedmail.org home page


The government of Nepal has organized a medical desk at Nepal's only international airport, Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu, to identify travelers who might have EVD for evaluation and referral. They are also setting up posts at important border points with India. Please see the above media link.

--
Communicated by:
Andrew Trotter, MD, MPH
Department of Internal Medicine
Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
Kathmandu, Nepal
<atrotter18@gmail.com>

******
[4] Ebola virus disease compendium
Date: Thu 14 Aug 2014
From: <butenop@medbox.org> [edited]


The Ebola Toolbox offers a comprehensive knowledge repository aimed at improving the effectiveness of interventions aimed at tackling EVD in emergencies. With over 90 documents relating to practical, hands-on field work relating to Ebola, it is by now the largest collection of documents on EVD on the internet: http://www.medbox.org/ebola-toolbox/listing.

MEDBOX (http://www.medbox.org) is a new and innovative online library aimed at improving the quality of health care in humanitarian action worldwide. Based on the assumption that humanitarian health workers around the world can act effectively if they have access to the necessary tools, MEDBOX collates the increasing number of professional guidelines, textbooks and practical documents on health action available online and brings these into the hands of aid workers: when they need it, where they need it. Whilst already comprising of over 1700 documents, MEDBOX is still under development and thrives to increase partnerships and collaboration to complete its library. Do you know of more open-access tools and documents for EVD, such as IEC [information, education and communication] materials/posters, flip charts, videos, PowerPoint presentations? Please contact us at the email below and share.

MEDBOX is a free-of-charge, open-source online library supported by funding from the German Foreign Ministry, the Humanitarian Innovation Fund and currently 20 international organisations and institutions. With a 3-step, free-of-charge registration, users can set up their own library of favourites within MEDBOX. MEDBOX has currently over 1000 visitors per week, the majority of whom use the Ebola Toolbox.

MEDBOX is brought to you by the Medical Mission Institute, the Catholic Advisory Group for International Health.

--
Dr Joost Butenop
MD, MPH, PhD
Founder, Project Coordinator
MEDBOX
Hermann Schell Str.7
97074 Wurzburg
Germany
http://www.medbox.org
http://www.medmissio.de
<butenop@medbox.org>

******
[5] Media reports


Nigeria: 16 000 doctors sacked
------------------------------
President Jonathan Sacks 16 000 Nigerian Resident Doctors. The President has ordered the sack of all resident doctors in Nigerian hospitals. The sack was contained in a directive by Mr. Jonathan to the Federal Ministry of Health to suspend all residency training programme for Nigerian doctors.
http://saharareporters.com/2014/08/14/p ... nt-doctors

[This is in response to a long, ongoing doctors' strike. This could affect the country's response to the EVD crisis. - Mod.JW]

Liberia: dead bodies in open
----------------------------
14 Aug 2014: 1st West Point EVD body removed Wednesday [13 Aug 2014], other suspected cases there may include some Guineans. The body of an EVD victim in West Point, Monrovia's largest slum [in the capital], was yesterday [13 Aug 2014] removed after 2 nights in the open. The West Point Commissioner, Madam Haja Flowers, told the Daily Observer, the individual, a male, dropped dead on Monday [11 Aug 2014] and repeated calls were made for his removal, but response was delayed. However, on Wednesday morning government people came and picked up the body for transport to the crematorium.... Observers said West Point inhabitants were very worried about the body tarrying for a long period in the township, fearing that its exposure to the general population might have provoked a further spread of the deadly ebolavirus.... [more]
http://www.liberianobserver.com/news/fi ... -wednesday

[It is very doubtful anybody touched the body for fear of contamination, and the ebolavirus cannot spread through the air to a passerby. - Mod.JW]

Singapore prevention exercise
-----------------------------
14 Aug 2014: Today, in a drill to respond to the potential arrival of a suspected EVD patient from abroad, Singapore conducted a patient isolation exercise at Changi International airport. Responders practiced placing a "patient" in a mobile isolation unit, and transporting the patient to the designated EVD-management hospital, Tan Tock Seng. Tan Tock Seng gained experience (and global admiration) for its care of SARS patients in 2003.... Singapore is not over-reacting, or paranoid, or hysterical. Singapore officials are facing what might happen, while reassuring people that it hasn't happened yet -- this time.
http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asi ... 12490.html

[Communicated by Jody Lanard <jody@psandman.com>]

Korea suspends flights to Kenya
-------------------------------
13 Aug 2014: Korean Air Lines Co Ltd said it will suspend flights to and from Nairobi from 20 Aug 2014 to prevent the spread of the deadly ebolavirus. Korean Air said it had been operating 4 return flights a week from Incheon, South Korea, to the capital of Kenya. The company said it would determine whether to resume the flights based on a change in conditions. It did not elaborate.
http://ewn.co.za/2014/08/14/Korean-Air- ... a-concerns

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
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Re: Ebola - Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria

Beitragvon Götz Krieger » 17.08.2014 14:23

Liberia: Sturm auf Ebola-Klinik - Infizierte Patienten fliehen

In Liberias Hauptstadt Monrovia hat eine aufgebrachte Menschenmenge eine Quarantänestation für Ebola-Patienten gestürmt. Infizierte Patienten flohen. Die Behörden befürchten nun eine weitere Ausbreitung des Virus.

Monrovia - Aufregung in Liberias Hauptstadt Monrovia: 17 Ebola-Patienten sind von einer Quarantänestation geflohen. Sie hätten das zu einer Klinik umfunktionierte Schulgebäude in einem Armenviertel der Hauptstadt Monrovia am Samstagabend verlassen - mithilfe von aufgebrachten Bürgern, die zuvor in die Klinik eingedrungen seien. Das berichtete die Zeitung "Front Page Africa" am Sonntag. Unter den Patienten befänden sich bestätigte Fälle und Verdachtsfälle, hieß es.


Der Slum West Point, in dem sich der Vorfall ereignete, ist dicht besiedelt und liegt ganz in der Nähe des Stadtzentrums von Monrovia. In dem Viertel leben rund 75.000 Menschen. Nun befürchten die Behörden, dass die geflohenen Patienten weitere Menschen anstecken könnten. Hunderte Menschen hatten sich dem Bericht zufolge vor der stillgelegten Schule versammelt. Sie schrien immer wieder: "Es gibt kein Ebola in West Point." Viele Bewohner halten die Ebola-Epidemie demnach für einen Schwindel....
http://www.spiegel.de/gesundheit/diagno ... 86549.html

Gruß
Götz
Götz Krieger
 
Beiträge: 569
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Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 17.08.2014 15:49

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (128): WHO, TOLL, LIBERIA, DRUG, MORE
***********************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this posting:
[1] WHO update
[2] WHO: toll vastly underestimated
[3] Liberia: disruption of hospital services
[4] Liberia: food shortage in quarantine
[5] Emergency food for quarantined EVD region
[6] Drug use obstacle
[7] FDA: fake drug alert
[8] Ghana: suspected death
[9] Media reports


******
[1] WHO update
Date: Fri 15 Aug 2014
Source: WHO Global Alert and Response, Disease Outbreak News [edited]
http://www.who.int/csr/don/2014_08_15_ebola/en/


Ebola virus disease update -- west Africa
-----------------------------------------
Disease update
[Table: Confirmed, probable, and suspect cases and deaths from Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone, as of 13 Aug 2014: Total Cases 2127; Deaths 1145]

Between 12-13 Aug 2014, a total of 152 new cases of Ebola virus disease [EVD] (laboratory-confirmed, probable, and suspect cases) as well as 76 deaths were reported from Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone.

[Nigeria announced Thu 14 Aug 2014 that another nurse had died from EVD, bringing the country's death toll to 4, as in the table above, but the ministry corrected its total number of EVD cases to 10, instead of 11 as it had reported earlier in the day (http://townhall.com/news/world/2014/08/ ... e-n1878682). - Mod.JW]

On 13-14 Aug 2014, some airlines and social media and traditional media vehicles expressed concern that air travel to and from affected countries was a high-risk activity for the spread of EVD. To correct this misunderstanding, WHO called a press conference at the UN Palais des Nations in Geneva on 14 Aug 2014. Dr Isabelle Nuttall, speaking on behalf of WHO, said, "Air travel, even from EVD-affected countries, is low-risk for EVD transmission."

Dr Nuttall further clarified modes of transmission for EVD and emphasized that the disease is not an airborne virus, unlike influenza or tuberculosis. The infection is transmitted to others through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person, such as blood, vomit, sweat, and diarrhoea. Even if an individual infected with EVD travels by plane, the likelihood of other passengers and crew coming into contact with the individual's bodily fluids is very low.

WHO does not recommend any travel or trade restrictions be applied except in cases where individuals have been confirmed or are suspected of being infected with EVD or where individuals have had contact with cases of EVD. (Contacts do not include properly-protected health-care workers and laboratory staff.) Temporary recommendations from the Emergency Committee with regard to actions to be taken by countries can be found at:
IHR Emergency Committee meeting on Ebola outbreak in west Africa
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/sta ... 0140808/en

The total number of cases is subject to change due to ongoing reclassification, retrospective investigation, and availability of laboratory results. Data reported in the Disease Outbreak News are based on official information reported by Ministries of Health.

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[WHO/CDC map of EVD region as of 11 Aug 2014: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-28798542. - Mod.JW]

******
[2] WHO: toll vastly underestimated
Date: Fri 15 Aug 2014
Source: Reuters [edited]
http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/08/ ... US20140815


Evidence suggests Ebola [virus disease] toll vastly underestimated: WHO
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Staff with the World Health Organisation battling an EVD outbreak in West Africa see evidence the numbers of reported cases and deaths vastly underestimates the scale of the outbreak, the UN agency said on its website on Thursday [14 Aug 2014] ... [more]

[Byline: Saliou Samb]

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[3] Liberia: disruption of hospital services
Date: Thu 14 Aug 2014
Source: Times of India [edited]
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/nri/ ... 209229.cms


Indian with malaria sent away from Liberian hospital, dies
----------------------------------------------------------
In Liberia, if EVD does not kill you, malaria will. For that matter, any curable disease will. Reason: the healthcare system in Liberia is so overwhelmed with EVD cases that patients with other diseases are bearing the brunt. An example is the death of Augustine Aiyadurai (fondly called Prabha), administrator of a Vellore hospital. He was in Liberia's Zorzor district since November last year [2013] ... putting into place efficient hospital systems. He died of malaria on 2 Aug 2014 due to non-availability of advanced medical care. Augustine's mother hails from Udupi [Karnataka, India].

A friend of Aiyadurai posted on Facebook: "Prabha developed fever last week and the peripheral blood smear showed malaria. The doctor in Zorzor had started him on Artemisinin and ceftriaxone. He was then sent to Monrovia, capital of Liberia, an arduous 8-hour road journey, to get better diagnostics and treatment. Unfortunately, almost all the hospitals in Liberia are closed because of the EVD epidemic.... The hospitals which are open are [only] taking EVD patients. Prabha was turned away. He did, however, have some tests which showed that he did not have EVD or Lassa fever. Prabha took the only recourse open to him: to go back to Zorzor, where he would get at least some treatment. When he got back to Zorzor, he was much worse.... He was confused and not eating. He was hydrated and looked after very well by Dr Roberts. However, after making some initial progress, he started deteriorating by the afternoon of 2 Aug 2014 and passed away by evening."

Surathkal resident Wilfred D'Souza, who left Liberia 2 weeks ago, had apprehended a situation similar to Aiyadurai's; 2 of his associates were down with malaria and typhoid. He had told TOI [Times of India] that almost all hospitals in Liberia were closed because of the EVD epidemic; those that were open took only Ebola patients and quarantined them. The situation is much the same today.

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[4] Liberia: food shortage in quarantine
Date: Fri 15 Aug 2014
Source: Monrovia Inquirer [edited]
http://monroviainquirer.com/2014/08/15/ ... uarantined


No Food for Ebola Victims...West Point, Dolo Town to Be Quarantined
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Amidst positive news of the survival of persons affected by the EVD virus, latest report says victims at the ELWA Ebola Isolation Center are leaving the camp due to lack of food. Disclosing this at the National Ebola Task Force Meeting held at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Monrovia yesterday [14 Aug 2014], Health Minister, Walter Gwenigale, said he had received several calls from the center that the people are hungry and need food.

According to Dr. Gwenigale, based on this latest report, most of the victims are now leaving the center which is a major threat to several communities to which those leaving are going. "I'm getting calls every day of the lack of food; the people say they are hungry and I understand that there is food there but I'm getting these calls every minute," Liberia's Health Minister Gwenigale said.

In quick clarification, Assistant Health Minister for Preventive Services, Tolbert Nyenswah, said food is available at the various Isolation Camps but those who are making the calls may need special diet. Nyenswah said the victims are being provided meal 3 times daily adding that the callers are the higher-ups who may need special kind of diet ... [more]

[Byline: Morrison O. G. Sayon]

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[5] Emergency food for quarantined EVD region
Date: Thu 14 Aug 2014
Source: Reuters [edited]
http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/08/ ... CW20140814
Via ProMED-IN mailing list http://www.promedmail.org


Exclusive: Emergency food drops eyed for quarantined EVD region of West Africa
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
International agencies are looking into emergency food drops and truck convoys to reach extremely hungry people in Liberia and Sierra Leone, who are cordoned off from the outside world to halt the spread of the Ebola virus, a top World Bank official said on Thursday [14 Aug 2014]. Hunger is spreading fast as farmers die leaving crops rotting in fields. Truckers scared of the highly infectious disease halt deliveries. Shops close and major airlines have shut down routes, isolating large swathes of the countries ... [more]

[Byline: Stella Dawson]

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[6] Drug use obstacle
Date: Thu 14 Aug 2014
Source: PharmaManufacturing, Bloomberg Businessweek report [edited]
http://www.pharmamanufacturing.com/indu ... ug-africa/


In addition to the ethical and supply concerns surrounding experimental EVD drugs, companies developing treatments may also face regulatory issues when attempting to bring new drugs to Africa. Tekmira Pharmaceuticals Corp., a Canada-based biopharmaceutical firm investigating an experimental treatment for Ebola, said that the "regulatory framework" to support dispensing its drug to patients in Africa "has not yet been established," given that the drug's safety and effectiveness has not been proven. Furthermore, Tekmira Chief Executive Officer Mark Murray told analysts that there is no assurance that the framework to support the new treatment -- TKM-Ebola -- in Africa will be developed.

Early stage human trials to test Tekmira's EVD therapy in healthy volunteers were put on clinical hold by the FDA in early July [2014] due to safety concerns. Last week, the FDA modified its stance to enable testing of Tekmira's drug in infected patients, although the hold on healthy volunteers is still in place, the company said.

[See also: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/20 ... ach-aftica. - Mod.JW]

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[7] FDA: fake drug alert
Date: Fri 15 Aug 2014
Source: World Pharma News [edited]
http://www.worldpharmanews.com/fda/2860 ... t-products


FDA warns consumers about fraudulent EVD treatment products
-----------------------------------------------------------
The US Food and Drug Administration [FDA] is advising consumers to be aware of products sold online claiming to prevent or treat ebolaviruses. Since the outbreak of the ebolavirus in West Africa, the FDA has seen and received consumer complaints about a variety of products claiming to either prevent the ebolavirus or treat the infection.

There are currently no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs to prevent or treat EVD. Although there are experimental EVD vaccines and treatments under development, these investigational products are in the early stages of product development, have not yet been fully tested for safety or effectiveness, and the supply is very limited. There are no approved vaccines, drugs, or investigational products specifically for EVD available for purchase on the Internet. By law, dietary supplements cannot claim to prevent or cure disease.

Individuals promoting these unapproved and fraudulent products must take immediate action to correct or remove these claims or face potential FDA action.

It is important to note that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), EVD does not pose a significant risk to the US public. Unfortunately, during outbreak situations, fraudulent products that claim to prevent, treat, or cure a disease all too often appear on the market. The FDA monitors for these fraudulent products and false claims and takes appropriate action to protect consumers.

Consumers who have seen these fraudulent products or false claims are encouraged to report them to the US FDA.

[Reporting of Counterfeit Drug Products
---------------------------------------
FDA needs your help! In order to ensure that only safe and effective drug products are available on the market, the FDA relies on the voluntary reporting of suspect counterfeit drugs from consumers, health practitioners, and other drug supply chain partners.

For Patients:
If you are a patient and believe that you may have a counterfeit drug, please contact the pharmacy where you received the medicine.
http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm170314.htm]

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[8] Ghana: suspected death
Date: Fri 15 Aug 2014
Source: GhanaWeb [edited]
http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/N ... ?ID=321271
via ProMED-IN mailing list

Suspected EVD patient dies; care givers at risk
-----------------------------------------------
Health workers at the Accra Psychiatric Hospital are praying and hoping that a suspected Ebola patient who they attended to and who died in their arms may well prove negative for the virus. If he proves otherwise, all who had contact with the man may well have to seek medical attention and with urgency.

On Tuesday evening [12 Aug 2014] Joy News learnt a patient who had previously been treated for a psychotic episode returned after the wife noticed that he was clenching his teeth. Doctors initially thought it was a drug reaction. Deputy Director of the facility Dr. Pinaman Appau was called by nurses and rushed in to see the man going unconscious and bleeding from the nose and mouth. She and the medical director came in wearing gloves and managed to put the patient on the floor to keep him from choking on his blood.

They tried to take samples of the blood but were not successful. They eventually took a sample from the blood oozing from the nose. Within 5 minutes the patient was dead. There was no protective clothing and other key protective health materials to keep the care givers safe from a possible ebolavirus infection. Dr Pinaman Appau, Deputy Director admits a lot went wrong in managing the case because none of them at the hospital had any knowledge on how to handle an EVD [case]. "Let me put on record that since this EVD scare started we have not had any formal education on how to handle a case," she admitted. She said the only protective material they had were ordinary gloves which they wore. She was candid that they had broken some principles in attending to a suspected EVD case. Even though a sample was finally taken and delivered to the Noguchi Institute for testing, Dr Pinaman again conceded, that sample may well be rejected because the right steps were not followed.

With the suspected EVD patient now dead, the only option left for a thorough scientific investigation of whether he was actually infected with ebolavirus is all the persons who had contact with him the few hours before he died. Dr Pinaman named them as the wife and uncle of the deceased, the security man, the taxi driver who helped carry the patient into the hospital premises, the nurses and other health workers who attended to him and herself and a colleague who attempted to resuscitate him. Dr Pinaman said given the discussion they had with the family of the deceased it was clear the deceased had no travel history, especially [not] to the EVD infected countries in West Africa. Dr Asiedu Bekoe, Public Health Specialist with the Ghana Health Service told Joy News every hospital must have a holding room or an isolation room. He said there must be a standby team that has a clinician, a nurse and a lab person who would ensure minimal contact with a patient.

[With no suspicious travel history, this case does not fit the definition of an EVD case. Among other possibilities, he may just have bitten his tongue off and choked to death. - Mod.JW]

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******
[9] Media reports
[This is a selection of the many suspected cases and other information to be found recently on the internet. - Mod.JW]


Nigeria: Nurse who escaped quarantine is now back in Lagos with her husband and 20 others in strict quarantine. Number of Nigerians under quarantine is now 198 ... [more]
http://allafrica.com/stories/201408141475.html
[This nurse was earlier reported to have died in Enugu and been in contact with 20 people there who are now under quarantine in Enugu. - Mod.JW]

Nigeria: 4th death, corrected figures
-------------------------------------
Also, Nigeria announced Thursday [14 Aug 2014] that another person had died from EVD, bringing the country's death toll to 4. The Health Ministry said the person was a nurse who helped treat the country's 1st Ebola case, Liberian-American Patrick Sawyer who flew in last month [July 2014] and died. The ministry corrected its total number EVD cases to 10 instead of 11 as it had reported earlier in the day.
http://townhall.com/news/world/2014/08/ ... e-n1878682

Sierra Leone: US embassy personnel leave
----------------------------------------
The US State Department ordered families of embassy personnel to leave Sierra Leone on Thursday [14 Aug 2014] because of concerns that the crisis would make it difficult to get treatment for even routine health problems.
http://townhall.com/news/world/2014/08/ ... e-n1878682
[News included in this URL is correct in spite of its title. - Mod.JW]

Ghana: travel ban
-----------------
14 Aug 2014: Government has warned that its citizens must not travel to any of the EVD-stricken countries in Africa including Liberia, Sierra Leone or Guinea in order to avoid contracting the killer Ebola virus disease. The Minister for Foreign Affairs, Hannah Tetteh, in a travel advisory issued at a press conference in Accra, also revealed that the country has suspended all international meetings it was scheduled to host for the next 3 months as a measure to mute the danger of visiting participants who may harbour the Ebola virus from transmitting same ... [more]
http://news.peacefmonline.com/pages/hea ... 210837.php

UK (Scotland) suspected case
----------------------------
15 Aug 2014: an EVD alert has been launched in Scotland after a detainee at an immigration centre was tested for the deadly virus. The woman, believed to be in her 30s and from Sierra Leone, was taken to a hospital for tests yesterday. She was transported in a specialist ambulance from the Dungavel Detention Centre, in Lanarkshire, where she was being held, to hospital in Airdrie. The tests for the deadly virus were carried out at Monklands General Hospital. A spokesman for NHS Lanarkshire said it was "highly unlikely" that the woman would test positive for ebola.
http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/scott ... re-4055946

Ireland: false alarm
--------------------
15 Aug 2014: Ebola outbreak: 'No confirmed or suspected EVD in Ireland', health officials say following reports of patient in Dublin ... [more]
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world ... 70550.html

South Africa: false alarm
-------------------------
15 Aug 2014: On Thursday [14 Aug 2014] the Democratic Alliance (DA) incorrectly published a statement saying that a woman was admitted to the Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital in Gauteng with EVD symptoms. While the pregnant woman, who came to South Africa from Guinea, tested negative for the virus, Health Minister Aaron Motsoaledi says government will alert the public if it believes EVD is in the country. Motsoaledi says the woman was placed in isolation as a precaution, while waiting for test results.
http://ewn.co.za/2014/08/15/SA-govt-tra ... bola-cases

ZMapp supply finished
---------------------
14 Aug 2014: ZMapp, the untested Ebola drug, arrived in [Liberia] late Wednesday [13 Aug 2014]. A day later, no one had yet received the treatment, which officials said would go to 3 people. The Liberian government had previously said 2 doctors would receive ZMapp, but it was unclear who else would. Information Minister Lewis Brown said Thursday [14 Aug 2014] it would probably be another health care worker. Treatment will be staggered, so doctors can observe the effects in one patient before moving on to the next. Late Thursday, he said the treatment had not yet started. These are the last known doses of ZMapp left. The San Diego-based company that developed it has said it will take months to build up even a modest supply.
http://townhall.com/news/world/2014/08/ ... e-n1878682

Interim Guidance about Ebola Infection for Airline Crews, Cleaning Personnel, and Cargo Personnel
http://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/air/manag ... lines.html

IOC bars Ebola-region athletes from some events in Youth Games
--------------------------------------------------------------
15 Aug 2014: The International Olympic Committee (IOC) said on Friday [15 Aug 2014] it was prohibiting young athletes from the EVD-affected region of West Africa from participating in certain events at the Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, China.
http://uk.reuters.com/article/2014/08/1 ... Q320140815

Ebola computer malware
----------------------
15 Aug 2014: Ebola fear used as bait, leads to malware infection. News of the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa has hit every news outlet around the globe, and cybercriminals are once again using the latest headlines to bait victims. Symantec [computer virus detection company] has observed 3 malware operations and one phishing campaign using the ebolavirus as a social engineering theme ... [more]
http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/e ... -infection

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Birgitt
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Beiträge: 24431
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Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 17.08.2014 15:52

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (129): NIGERIA, PREVENTION, MORE
******************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
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ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this posting:
[1] Nigeria: survivor discharged
[2] Hand sanitizers: effectiveness
[3] Thermal screening: limitations
[4] Media reports


******
[1] Nigeria: survivor discharged
Date: Sat 16 Aug 2014
Source: Premium Times Nigeria [edited]
https://www.premiumtimesng.com/featured ... t6Y7v.dpbs


The doctor who treated Patrick Sawyer, the Liberian-American who brought Ebola into the country, at First Consultant Hospital, and was subsequently infected with the virus, has recovered and has since been discharged from the Isolation centre in Lagos.

The doctor was the 1st Nigerian infected with the virus and had been receiving treatment at the Isolation centre ... [more]

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[2] Hand sanitizers: effectiveness
Date: not available
Source: Bode Science Center [edited]
http://www.bode-science-center.com/cent ... virus.html


The WHO recommends in general the use of an alcohol-based hand rub for routine hand disinfection. In its latest publication about the Ebola virus in August 2014, the WHO also describes hand disinfection as the standard of hand decontamination.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend hand washing with soap and water or use of an alcohol-based hand rub. The German Robert Koch Institute (RKI) recommends the use of an alcohol-based hand rub with a proven efficacy against at least enveloped viruses. Many hand disinfectants are known to be broadly effective against enveloped viruses.

Hand washing alone is definitely not the most effective decontamination method for clean hands. Furthermore, the ebolavirus is spread into the surrounding area where it can remain infectious for up to 3 weeks. This is an avoidable risk of cross contamination. Disinfection alone can ensure that the virus loses its infectivity.

[Stratford-upon-Avon-based [UK] toiletries manufacturer DCS Group owns the Enliven brand and also makes other hand sanitiser brands. Denys Shortt OBE -- CEO of DCS -- said: "Phone enquiries have been coming in from Africa for urgent supplies of Enliven hand sanitiser. We are helping as much as we can and we are currently planning to urgently produce over 500 000 bottles for a customer in Nigeria."
http://www.thebusinessdesk.com/westmidl ... ion=273986

ProMED has no financial connection with the DCS Group. - Mod.JW]

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[3] Thermal screening: limitations
Date: Fri 15 Aug 2014
From: Jason Cerovac <jcerovac@panix.com> [edited]
Via ProMED Submit Info tab at top of home page http://www.promedmail.org


EVD and Thermal Scanners
------------------------
In reference to [Ebola virus disease - West Africa (127): Guinea, screening, more 20140815.2691736], Liberian officials using older contact thermometers and then Mod.JW's comments to use non-contact thermometers [I was supposing that tympanic (contact) thermometers were not swabbed with alcohol between passengers, thus carrying a potential risk. I have been unable to find a video on the internet showing them in use at an airport. - Mod.JW]:

What is the actual effectiveness of the use of non-contact thermometers in detecting febrile individuals in an open-air, non-temperature-controlled environment? What have we learned during the SARS and H5N1 endemics that could be useful in improving the screening processes to detect individuals who may be ill?

Experience doesn't equal data; but my experiences are that while thermal scanning, if done in ideal settings, may be effective; similar techniques used outside of a temperature and airflow controlled environment are simply ineffective. The use of contact (temporal, tympanic) thermometers are necessary in those circumstances, and even these do not respond well if the environment is overly hot or cold.

Much of the data I could find supports my experience; such as that published in Eurosurveillance or in Emerging Infectious Diseases over the past few years [see refs. below].

Used inside of a temperature controlled air terminal, the large and very expensive thermal imaging devices work well enough; I suspect more simplistic non-contact devices would do so as well; but the airports in West Africa, at least those that I have been to, including Liberia, are not temperature controlled; and individuals have to walk in from the tarmac. These are not ideal conditions for keeping the sensitivity high enough to be beneficial.

Furthermore, they are not using thermal imaging devices; instead they are using a non-contact point and scan device which only measures the temperature over a small area. Used in the field, at a makeshift roadside inspection station, and using such non-contact point and scan devices, the effectiveness would be even less, I suspect.

Are they also using questionnaires? Do they have personnel trained and experienced in identifying potentially sick travelers? I don't know that Liberia, or any of the other countries in the region, has the resources to roll this out in an effective manner. I've visited hospitals and clinics in Monrovia -- I was unimpressed. Their health system was in dire straits before the outbreak; it is crumbling under the pressure of the outbreak; I don't see how they will be able to manage effective screening checkpoints.

My point in all this is just that I don't think the advice should be increasing (and placing their hopes of containment) in such screening checkpoints. Resources are already limited (the daily SitRep from MOHSW in Liberia remarks on how difficult it is to get bleach and gloves), don't limit them further. Improve the conditions for the current contact tracing teams, for the current healthcare workers; but avoid utilization of resources on methods that are inefficacious. What good advice can be given to the people in West Africa fighting this that will actually work to help contain and control the outbreak?

References:
1. Fever Screening at Airports and Imported Dengue; Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 11, No 3; March 2005
2. Screening for Infectious Disease at International Airports: The Frankfurt Model; Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 80, No 7; July 2009
3. International travels and fever screening during epidemics: a literature review on the effectiveness and potential use of non-contact infrared thermometers; Eurosurveillance, Volume 14, Issue 6, 12 February 2009
4. Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Pandemic Influenza, National and Community Measures; WHO Writing Group; published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol12, No. 1; Jan 2006
5. There's Really No Way To Screen for Ebola at Airports; Defense One; 1 Aug 2014
Limiting the spread of pandemic, zoonotic, and seasonal epidemic influenza; WHO 2010
6. Controlling infectious disease outbreaks: Lessons from mathmatical modeling; Journal of Public Health Policy (2009) #30

--
Jason Cerovac
Medical Services Manager for a company with operations in West Africa
<jcerovac@panix.com>

******
[4] Media reports


Ebolavirus Epidemic Is Like 'War Time' Says MSF
-----------------------------------------------
15 Aug 2014: Medical charity pleads for the international community to unite to combat the outbreak as the death tolls climbs above 1100. Health experts have revealed they are struggling to contain West Africa's deadly ebolavirus outbreak, and described the situation as like being in "wartime". The charity Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) said if the situation in Liberia is not brought under control then the region will never be stabilised. "The main thing I come back to is that it is deteriorating faster, moving faster than we can respond," MSF international president Dr Joanne Liu said.... "I really feel that it is like wartime, in terms of fear and nobody knowing what is going on.... We need a response in terms of international organisations and states, and it needs to happen now if we want to contain this epidemic."
http://news.sky.com/story/1319044/ebola ... e-says-msf

IFRC calls for co-ordination
----------------------------
New chief of International [Federation of] Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies [IFRC] calls for co-ordinated efforts to halt spread of ebolavirus. In response to the EVD outbreak, over 1500 volunteers, mobilized by National Red Cross Societies in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia and supported by IFRC, have been actively engaged in numerous activities at community level such as social mobilization, dead body management and contact tracing, as it was introduced ... [more]
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/healt ... 560050.htm

Ebola NOT airborne
------------------
15 Aug 2014: Ebola virus may be spread by droplets, but not by an airborne route: what that means.
http://virologydownunder.blogspot.co.uk
[People who still believe ebolaviruses are airborne in nature should read this scholarly yet easily understandable explanation of the difference between airborne and aerosol-borne. - Mod.JW]

Nigeria: nanosilver treatment
-----------------------------
15 Aug 2014: On Thursday [14 Aug 2014] this week, the Wall Street Journal reported that Ebola victims in Nigeria's commercial capital Lagos will receive Nano Silver in an attempt to treat the infection.
http://www.riskscience.umich.edu/nano-s ... ms-nigeria
[This is a carefully researched article that concludes: "Given the commercial interests involved here and the paucity of evidence for nano-silver being in any way an appropriate treatment for EVD, the wisdom of treating patients in Nigeria with the material has to be questioned on both medical and ethical grounds." - Mod.JW]

Senegal: US basketball clinic cancelled
---------------------------------------
16 Aug 2014: The US national team has canceled a trip to Senegal after the EVD outbreak in West Africa. The Americans were scheduled to ... travel to the African continent for the 1st time, conducting a joint clinic on 27 Aug 2014 with the Senegal national team.... But USA Basketball chairman Jerry Colangelo said Friday [15 Apr 2014] the Americans had no choice but to call off the trip because of the risk involved with Senegal's location near countries where the outbreak has been deadly ... [more]
http://www.sowetanlive.co.za/sport/2014 ... a-outbreak

[Map of Senegal, north of Guinea: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Z0pmc5GeOT4/T ... ca_map.jpg. - Mod.JW]

Guyana: sensitization campaign
------------------------------
16 Aug 2014: Guyana strengthens Port Surveillance and other Clinical Health Systems. During a press conference yesterday [15 Aug 2014], [it was] noted that a sensitization campaign is pertinent to ensuring the safety of the Guyanese populace ... recommended that posters, pamphlets, advertisements and other forms of public notices be used to educate the masses on the deadly effects of the ebolavirus.
http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2014/ ... a-outbreak

Visas for the Hajj
------------------
16 Aug 2014: Nigeria is not included as there have been no cases outside the cluster related to the index case. As for citizens of banned countries living outside the 3 countries, it has not been clarified, as it will be left to the embassies in those countries to decide depending on risk and recent travel.
Source: a knowledgeable, unofficial correspondent

Russia: protective masks that can be worn for 15 days
-----------------------------------------------------
16 Aug 2014: A Russian holding company is planning to organize shipments to Africa of personal protective masks ... designed to prevent and protect the local population from infection with ebolavirus. The innovative material has a bactericidal and bacteriostatic action, which lasts for 360 hour.... This mask can be used 20 times after washing.
http://www.istreetresearch.com/russian- ... ys/254445/

[But they only kill bacteria -- and EVD is caused by a virus! - Mod.JW]

UK (England): false alarm
-------------------------
16 Aug 2014: Patient 'quarantined' during Ebola scare at Weston General Hospital. There was an Ebola scare at Weston General Hospital today [16 Aug 2014]. The man, believed to have been from Libya, walked into the accident and emergency department at about 9:00 am this morning. When a triage nurse raised concerns about how he was presenting, and the fact that he had recently been to Africa, medical staff isolated him and carried out a full examination to see if he was infected with the deadly, contagious virus. "They ... isolated him in one of the bays away from the other patients..." [more]
http://www.bristolpost.co.uk/Patient-qu ... story.html

Rapid Threat Assessment
-----------------------
5 Aug 2014: In August 2012 [historical data from International Air Travel Association (IATA)], travelers departing from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone predominantly traveled to African destinations (55 percent). Most of the remaining travelers went to Europe (30 percent) and the Eastern Mediterranean (7 percent). The Americas received less than 5 percent and the USA only 2.5 percent. Also noteworthy, the total volume of international traffic from these 3 countries is quite low relative to other major countries. Finally, the countries at the center of the outbreak have announced a cross-border isolation zone ... [more]
http://healthmap.org/site/diseasedaily/ ... ENGsO.dpuf

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[There is an excellent graphic showing the low droplet risk from Zaire ebolavirus at: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-ISAkF58B3LE/U ... es-v5a.png.

Interesting pie chart: Final Destinations of Airline Travelers Departing from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone by WHO region during the month of August 2012 [historical data]: http://www.ebolaus.com/wp-content/uploa ... lredit.jpg.

This will evidently change when British Airways and Kenya Airways suspend their flights at the end of August 2014 (Emirates has already stopped flying to West Africa).

The CDC manual on Infection Control can be downloaded in 3 different languages at the bottom of page here: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/abroad/vhf-manual.html.

Further resources and information can be found here: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/abroad/healthcare-workers.html. - Mod.JW

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/62.]
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Ebola in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 18.08.2014 11:56

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (130): LIBERIA, MORE
***************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] Liberia: attack on quarantine center
[2] Liberia: PPE shortage critical
[3] India, suspected
[4] Media reports (1)
[5] Media reports (2)


******
[1] Liberia: attack on quarantine center
Date: Sun 17 Aug 2014
Source: CBS News [edited]
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/report-arme ... g-patients


Liberian officials fear EVD could soon spread through the capital's largest slum after residents raided a quarantine center for suspected patients and took items including bloody sheets and mattresses. The violence in the West Point slum occurred late Sat [16 Aug 2014] and was led by residents angry that patients were brought to the holding center from other parts of Monrovia, Tolbert Nyenswah, assistant health minister, said Sun [17 Aug 2014].

Local witnesses told Agence France Presse that there were armed men among the group that attacked the clinic. "They broke down the doors and looted the place. The patients all fled," said Rebecca Wesseh, who witnessed the attack and whose report was confirmed by residents and the head of Health Workers Association of Liberia, George Williams. Up to 30 patients were staying at the center, and many of them fled at the time of the raid, said Nyenswah [other reports put the number at 17. - Mod.JW]. Once they are located, they will be transferred to the EVD center at Monrovia's largest hospital, he said.

The attack comes just one day after a report of a crowd of several hundred local residents chanting "No Ebola in West Point" drove away a burial team and their police escort that had come to collect the bodies of suspected EVD victims in a slum in the capital, Reuters reports. West Point residents went on a "looting spree," stealing items from the clinic that were likely infected, said a senior police official, who insisted on anonymity because he was not authorized to brief the press. The residents took medical equipment and mattresses and sheets that had bloodstains, he said. EVD is spread through bodily fluids including blood, vomit, feces and sweat.

"All between the houses, you could see people fleeing with items looted from the patients," the official said, adding that he now feared "the whole of West Point will be infected." Some of the looted items were visibly stained with blood, vomit and excrement, said Richard Kieh, who lives in the area.

The incident creates a new challenge for Liberian health officials who were already struggling to contain the outbreak. New figures released by the World Health Organization show that Liberia has recorded more EVD deaths (413) than any of the other affected countries.

Liberian police restored order to the West Point neighborhood on Sun [17 Aug 2014]. Sitting on land between the Montserrado River and the Atlantic Ocean, West Point is home to at least 50 000 people, according to a 2012 survey. Distrust of government runs high in West Point, with rumors regularly circulating that the government plans to clear the slum out entirely. Though there had been talk of putting West Point under quarantine should EVD break out there, assistant health minister Nyenswah said Sunday [17 Aug 2014] that no such step has been taken. "West Point is not yet quarantined, as is being reported," he said.

While the armed attack is likely the most brazen attack on health workers trying to contain the deadly outbreak, it is far from the 1st in the region worst-hit by it. There have been numerous reports of locals attacking those trying to stop the disease by throwing stones at aid workers, blocking aid convoys, and forcibly removing patients from clinics. Many locals blame foreigners for bringing the disease, saying it had never been there before they arrived. The mistrust of central government and help from outside runs deep in this part of West Africa. All 3 countries worst-hit by the outbreak -- Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea -- are relatively recently off decades of either brutal civil war or iron-fisted dictatorships.

--
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******
[2] Liberia: PPE shortage critical
Date: 7 Aug 2014
Source: Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) [edited]
http://www.mohsw.gov.lr/documents/Liber ... 202014.pdf


Liberia Ebola SitRep no. 84, 7 Aug 2014
------------------
[See Logistics/Supply Chain Highlights chart at end. Comment by Dr IM Mackay:

"This is appalling. It's been 8-days since PHEIC [Public Health Emergency of International Concern, WHO] announced & these are #liberia #PPE [personal protective equipment] stocks https://twitter.com/MackayIM/status/500813451564834816.

The most recent Sitrep I could find on the MOHSW website is No. 89 dated 12 Aug 2014 and does not contain a Logistics/Supply Chain Highlights chart: http://mohsw.gov.lr/documents/Liberia%2 ... 202014.pdf. I sincerely hope a few more tons of PPE have reached Liberia in the 10 days since the 6 Aug 2014 inventory. - Mod.JW]

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[3] India, suspected
Date: Sun 17 Aug 2014
Source: Times of India [edited]
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city ... 325158.cms


The 3 Nigerians, aged 79, 37 and 4 years, had fever, and their tests were being done at the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Delhi, an official release said here.

In addition to this, a 32-year-old Indian from Durg in Chhattisgarh who returned from Nigeria has been admitted to a hospital in Bhilai. His samples are also being tested at NCDC, the release said.

[Other reports say that only 29 out of 170 Indian subjects evacuated from Liberia gave valid contact phone numbers for contact tracing on arrival back in India. - Mod.JW]

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[4] Media reports (1)

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/17/world ... .html?_r=0

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/16/healt ... .html?_r=1

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world ... 72546.html

Ethiopia Braces for Ebola Treatment [2 pages]
http://allafrica.com/stories/2014081600 ... e=acrdn-f0

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/educa ... 73861.html

SUSPECTED CASES
UAE: Nigerian who died in United Arab Emirates may have shown signs consistent with EVD
----------------------------------
17 Aug 2014: "... The 35-year-old woman was traveling to India from Nigeria via Abu Dhabi to seek treatment for advanced cancer when her health deteriorated during her time in transit at Abu Dhabi's airport, the authority said in a statement according to the state WAM news agency. ..."
http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/08/ ... LR20140817

GUINEA (and Liberia/Sierra Leone):
16 Aug 2014: Guinea reopens EVD clinic as sick spill over border http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/08/ ... I820140816

LIBERIA:
17 Aug 2014: Struggling Liberia creates "plague villages" in EVD epicenter http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/08/ ... EY20140817, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/18/world ... c=rss&_r=0

NIGERIA:
http://www.punchng.com/news/states-stra ... a-to-lagos
http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/20 ... 40296.html

How EVD patients survived - Experts
http://www.vanguardngr.com/2014/08/ebol ... d-experts/

Breaking the EVD infection cycle
http://www.vanguardngr.com/2014/08/brea ... tion-cycle

South Africa ex Liberia: suspected EVD
--------------------------------
17 Aug 2014: ... Johannesburg: A 37-year-old South African man, working as health and safety officer in a mining operation in Liberia, was admitted to hospital [in South Africa] on Sun [17 Aug 2014], the department of health said. ... Spokesman Joe Maila said the man arrived in the country on 6 Aug 2014. "He was scanned as normal routine in accordance with screening protocols for incoming travellers at the OR Tambo International Airport. ... He was healthy on arrival. ... On 16 Aug 2014, the man went to his general practitioner due to fever. ... http://www.ann7.com/article/16353-17082 ... _FC2YBdXL-

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*******
[5] Media reports (2)

Spain: false alarm
----------------
15 Aug 2014: Health authorities in southeastern Spain activated EVD alert protocols after a young Nigerian man was admitted to hospital in Alicante with fever and vomiting.
UPDATE 2 (Sun [17 Aug 2014], 5:42 p.m.): Spanish news agency EFE, citing health ministry sources, reported the Nigerian patient did not have EVD. http://www.thespainreport.com/10398/spa ... bola-cases

U.N. will start flights for humanitarian workers
----------------------------------------
17 Aug 2014: Amid a growing number of airline cancellations, the U.N. will start flights for humanitarian workers on Sat [16 Aug 2014] to ensure that aid operations aren't interrupted. In the coming weeks, they will also ferry staff to remote areas by helicopter. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/report-arme ... g-patients [included at very end of above URL about the clinic attack. - Mod.JW]

Ebolavirus, pigs, primates and people
------------------------------
17 Aug 2014: This is a companion piece to the collaborative article, "Ebolavirus may be spread by droplets, but not by an airborne route: what that means," posted a couple of days ago. It is suggested to read both. URL 2) below includes: "If infection can happen between primates via the air, it is a very, very inefficient process, as a study of 78 people from 27 households with EVD cases during the 1995 Kikwit EVD epidemic revealed. Those 78 household members had no physical contact with the cases, and they did not get sick. Others who had physical contact got EVD [ref. (10) http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/1 ... 1/S87.long].
1) http://virologydownunder.blogspot.com.a ... plets.html [see ProMED archive 20140816.2696764].
2) http://virologydownunder.blogspot.com.a ... eople.html [URL 2) above is a serious and well-researched article. - Mod.JW].

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Re: Ebola - Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria

Beitragvon Alexander » 18.08.2014 20:44

Liberia greift zu drastischen Maßnahmen im Kampf gegen die Ebolaausbreitung. Dem Miltär wurde Schießbefehl erteilt.

Ebola: Liberias Armee erhält Schießbefehl an Grenze

Wer in der Nacht versuche, aus Sierra Leone über die Grenze zu gelangen, werde erschossen, gab die Armee bekannt.

Zu drastischen Mitteln greift die liberianische Regierung, um der Ausbreitung der Ebola-Seuche Herr zu werden: Der stellvertretende Generalstabschef Eric W Dennis hat der Armee einen partiellen Schießbefehl erteilt. Soldaten, die an den Grenzübergängen zweier an Sierra Leone angrenzender Bezirke stationiert seien, würden jeden erschießen, der versuche, unter dem Schutz der Dunkelheit die Grenze zu überqueren. mehr...

Grüsse
Alexander
The one who follows the crowd will usually go no further than the crowd. Those who walk alone are likely to find themselves in places no one has ever been before.

... follow us on facebook - das Wüstenschiff auf Facebook
>>> Firmen, die Wüstenschiff-Aktionen in Afrika unterstützen
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Re: Ebola - Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria

Beitragvon Alexander » 19.08.2014 05:16

Affenfleisch bringt Geld, macht satt – und tötet

Obwohl die Regierung wegen der Ebola-Gefahr inzwischen strikt davon abrät, wird in Nigeria weiter Wild verzehrt. Die arme Landbevölkerung Westafrikas ist auf das "Bushmeat" angewiesen. mehr...

Grüsse
Alexander
The one who follows the crowd will usually go no further than the crowd. Those who walk alone are likely to find themselves in places no one has ever been before.

... follow us on facebook - das Wüstenschiff auf Facebook
>>> Firmen, die Wüstenschiff-Aktionen in Afrika unterstützen
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Ebola in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 19.08.2014 11:39

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (131): WHO EXIT SCREENING, LIBERIA, MORE
**************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] WHO: exit screening recommended
[2] Liberia
[3] Media reports


******
[1] WHO: exit screening recommended
Date: 18 Aug 2014
Source: WHO statement [edited]


The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is believed to have begun in Guinea in December 2013. This outbreak now involves community transmission in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and recently an ill traveller from Liberia infected a small number of people in Nigeria with whom he had direct contact.

On 8 Aug 2014, WHO declared the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in accordance with the International Health Regulations (2005).

In order to support the global efforts to contain the spread of the disease and provide a coordinated international response for the travel and tourism sector, the heads of WHO, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Airports Council International (ACI), International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) decided to activate a Travel and Transport Task Force which will monitor the situation and provide timely information to the travel and tourism sector as well as to travellers.

The risk of transmission of Ebola virus disease during air travel is low. Unlike infections such as influenza or tuberculosis, Ebola is not spread by breathing air (and the airborne particles it contains) from an infected person. Transmission requires direct contact with blood, secretions, organs or other body fluids of infected living or dead persons or animals, all unlikely exposures for the average traveller. Travellers are, in any event, advised to avoid all such contacts and routinely practice careful hygiene, like hand washing. The risk of getting infected on an aircraft is also small, as sick persons usually feel so unwell that they cannot travel, and infection requires direct contact with the body fluids of the infected person.

Most infections in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone are taking place in the community when family members or friends take care of someone who is ill or when funeral preparation and burial ceremonies do not follow strict infection prevention and control measures. A 2nd important place where transmission can occur is in clinics and other health care settings, when health care workers, patients, and other persons have unprotected contact with a person who is infected. In Nigeria, cases are related only to persons who had direct contact with a single traveller who was hospitalized upon arrival in Lagos.

It is important to note that a person who is infected is only able to spread the virus to others after the infected person has started to have symptoms. A person usually has no symptoms for 2-21 days (the "incubation period"). Symptoms include fever, weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, and, in some cases, bleeding. The risk of a traveller becoming infected with the ebolavirus during a visit to the affected countries and developing disease after returning is very low, even if the visit includes travel to areas in which cases have been reported. If a person, including a traveller, stayed in the areas where EVD cases have been recently reported, he/she should seek medical attention at the 1st sign of illness (fever, headache, aches, sore throat, diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach pain, rash, red eyes, and in some cases, bleeding). Early treatment can improve prognosis.

Strengthened international cooperation is needed and should support action to contain the virus, stop transmission to other countries, and mitigate the effects in those affected.

Affected countries are requested to conduct exit screening of all persons at international airports, seaports and major land crossings for unexplained febrile illness consistent with potential Ebola infection. Any person with an illness consistent with EVD should not be allowed to travel unless the travel is part of an appropriate medical evacuation. There should be no international travel of EVD contacts or cases, unless the travel is part of an appropriate medical evacuation. Non-affected countries need to strengthen the capacity to detect and immediately contain new cases while avoiding measures that will create unnecessary interference with international travel or trade.

WHO does not recommend any ban on international travel or trade, in accordance with advice from the WHO Ebola Emergency Committee. Travel restrictions and active screening of passengers on arrival at sea ports, airports or ground crossings in non-affected countries that do not share borders with affected countries are not currently recommended by WHO.

Worldwide, countries should provide to their citizens traveling to Ebola-affected countries accurate and relevant information on the Ebola outbreak and measures to reduce the risk of exposure.

Media contact:
Gregory Hartl
WHO Department of Communications
Telephone: +41 22 791 44 58
Mobile: +41 79 203 67 15
<hartlg@who.int>

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******
[2] Liberia
Date: 15 Aug 2014
Source: Ministry of Health and Social Welfare [edited]
http://mohsw.gov.lr/documents/Liberia%2 ... 202014.pdf


Liberia Ebola SitRep no. 92, 15 Aug 2014
------------------
[This is a very detailed situation report of cases and deaths by county (district), actions taken, inventory of supplies and projections of requirements. See the Logistics/Supply Chain Highlights (14 Aug 2014) chart; 4 days ago, they only had 3 body bags, 7x45 kg bags of 70 percent calcium hypochlorite and no (zero) PPE kits left! Read and weep. How are health workers supposed to protect themselves? - Mod.JW]

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******
[3] Media reports

[ProMED tries to include EVD news only from reputable sources. Readers who spot unreliable material in our posts are requested to alert us by using the Submit Info tab at the top of our home page at http://www.promedmail.org.]

LIBERIA
Some who fled quarantine center are back

-----------------------------------
18 Aug 2014: Patients who fled clinic under observation at another hospital: Late Sat 16 Aug 2014, residents of Monrovia's West Point slum attacked a quarantine center where people were being monitored for possible infection with EVD. [Local] residents were angry that patients were brought to the holding center from other parts of Monrovia. ... None of those who fled had been confirmed with EVD, and the process of screening them is continuing, Assistant Health Minister Tolbert Nyenswah said. ...
http://online.wsj.com/articles/some-who ... 1408370360

NIGERIA
http://ireports-ng.com/2014/08/18/four- ... ent-centre

GUINEA-BISSAU, MOZAMBIQUE
17 Aug 2014: Portugal has sent 20 tons of medicines for Guinea-Bissau, aiming to help the country prepare for the threat of an Ebola virus disease outbreak. The assurance was given by the Director General of Health, Francis George. Portugal will also send 10 personal protection suits for doctors and nurses in Mozambique. Neither country has yet registered any case of EVD. ...
http://www.cmjornal.xl.pt/detalhe/notic ... ine-bissau [in Portuguese]

GUINEA-BISSAU
18 Aug 2014: The Ministries of Health and Internal Affairs of Guinea-Bissau today [18 Aug 2014] broadcast an order banning various public ceremonies and imposed greater control of drinking water within the EVD prevention program launched by the government.
http://www.noticiasaominuto.com/mundo/2 ... to-no-pais [in Portuguese]

SUSPECTED CASES

KENYA: suspected cases negative

--------------------------
18 Aug 2014: EVD is not in Kenya. Cabinet Secretary James Macharia is urging Kenyans to be calm as the government has increased its surveillance of the haemorrhagic fever. The Ministry of Health has allayed fears that the deadly EVD is in Kenya, saying 4 patients admitted to the Kenyatta Hospital have tested negative.
http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2014/08 ... ria-asures

KENYA: Zimbabwean sparks Ebola scare
------------------------------
18 Aug 2014: A Zimbabwean national was tested for the deadly Ebola virus in Kenya after showing EVD-like symptoms at a time when there are growing fears that the Zimbabwean government is ill-prepared to deal with the disease outbreak. Health and Child Care minister David Parirenyatwa said Zimbabweans should be very careful about the deadly disease, adding that no one should travel to countries hit by the scourge to avoid contracting EVD. Parirenyatwa said Zimbabwe was on high alert and screening all visitors from West Africa at all the international airports.
https://www.newsday.co.zw/2014/08/18/zi ... bola-scare

USA: suspects negative
-------------------------
18 Aug 2014: A 30-year-old woman in New Mexico [USA] is being tested for EVD, according to state officials. The woman had recently traveled to Sierra Leone and arrived at the hospital with a sore throat, headache, muscle aches and fever, according to the New Mexico Department of Health, which is working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to rule out EVD. As of 5 Aug 2014, the CDC had tested blood samples from 6 possible EVD patients in the USA. They were all negative. Suspected EVD patients at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, Johns Hopkins Medicine in Maryland and an undisclosed hospital in Ohio have all tested negative for EVD over the past several weeks. The CDC had sent a health alert to hospitals across the country urging them to ask patients about their travel history to help identify potential Ebola cases.
http://abcnewsradioonline.com/health-ne ... z3AmcTEOxq

INDIA
http://www.nationalturk.com/en/india-sc ... g-10-53271

GUINEA:
Re-emergence of new cases in Guinea. The head of the Division of Disease Prevention Department of Health, Dr. Sakhoba Keita, told PANA on Sat 16 Aug 2014 that the Faranah area in Upper Guinea suddenly had become "a major concern" because of the massive return of many Guineans from Sierra Leone and neighboring Liberia, also affected by EVD, before the declaration of the national health emergency by the head of state (...). We record an average of 2-4 new cases per day, patients who come across the border between the 2 neighboring countries," he said. ...
http://www.lejourguinee.com/index.php/f ... -en-guinee [in French]

SIERRA LEONE:
http://awoko.org/2014/08/18/sierra-leon ... y-director

NIGERIA:
Ebola Virus Disease Nigeria Daily Situation Report (SitRep No: 17)
Date: 16 Aug 2014
http://reliefweb.int/report/nigeria/ebo ... ugust-2014

Nigeria now has 12 Ebola cases, 5 recovered
http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/08/ ... W20140818;
http://www.vanguardngr.com/2014/08/ebol ... gins-lagos

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
17 Aug 2014: The United Arab Emirates on Sun [17 Aug 2014] reported the 1st suspected EVD death for a Nigerian woman who arrived to Abu Dhabi on the way to India for treatment for advanced cancer.
http://www.aa.com.tr/en/world/374861--u ... bola-death

LIBERIA
http://www.liberianobserver.com/securit ... ers-night;
http://www.liberianobserver.com/news/eb ... on-worsens

CHINA
18 Aug 2014: China to do its best to help Guinea battle EVD. On Sat 16 Aug 2014, a new 3-member Chinese medical unit tasked with helping Guinea deal with the EVD outbreak arrived in Conakry, along with China's 24th regular medical aid team.
http://www.ecns.cn/voices/2014/08-18/130182.shtml

INDIA (ex Nigeria):
Delhi: Nigerian national tests inconclusive for EVD; sample sent to Pune [National Institute of Virology]
http://www.ndtv.com/article/cities/delh ... une-577326

KENYA:
http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/health/a ... -situation?

SPAIN:
http://www.thespainreport.com/10456/spa ... ince-april

BULK SHIPPING
19 Aug 2014: 2 dry bulk fixtures for West Africa loading canceled on Ebola fears. Trades involving 2 dry bulk vessels expected to load bauxite for India from Kamsar port in Guinea were canceled at the last minute last week due to the EVD outbreak, prompting concern that shipping companies will curtail services to the region, shipping sources said on Mon 18 Aug 2014. ... Ship owners are also worried that their vessels will not be allowed to enter the destination ports after they have been loaded in EVD-affected areas.
http://www.hellenicshippingnews.com/two ... rs-sources

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Ebola-Fieber in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 20.08.2014 19:20

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (132): WHO, SOS, LIBERIA, NIGERIA, MORE
*************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] WHO update
[2] Sierra Leone: SOS call for overseas doctors & nurses
[3] Liberia
[4] Nigeria
[5] National Library of Medicine (NLM) resources
[6] Prevention
[7] False alarms


******
[1] WHO update
Date: 19 Aug 2014
Source: WHO Disease outbreak news [edited]
http://www.who.int/csr/don/2014_08_19_ebola/en


Ebola virus disease update - West Africa
--------------------------------
Confirmed, probable, and suspect cases and deaths from Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone, as of 16 Aug 2014, Total Cases 2240, Deaths 1229.

Between 14-16 Aug 2014, a total of 113 new cases of Ebola virus disease (laboratory-confirmed, probable, and suspect cases) as well as 84 deaths were reported from Guinea, Liberia*, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.

Health sector response
...To reduce the likelihood that those who are infected will carry the disease outside their communities, the governments have set up quarantine zones in areas of high transmission including severely-affected cities such as Gueckedou in Guinea, Kenema and Kailahun in Sierra Leone and Foya in Liberia...

WHO is working with the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) to ensure people in the quarantine zones receive regular food aid and other non-medical supplies. WFP is now scaling up its programme to distribute food to the around one million people living in the quarantine zones in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Food has been delivered to hospitalized patients and people under quarantine who are not able to leave their homes to purchase food. Providing regular food supplies is a potent means of limiting unnecessary movement.

WHO does not recommend any travel or trade restrictions be applied except in cases where individuals have been confirmed or are suspected of being infected with EVD or where individuals have had contact with cases of EVD. (Contacts do not include properly-protected health-care workers and laboratory staff.) Temporary recommendations from the Emergency Committee with regard to actions to be taken by countries can be found at: IHR Emergency Committee meeting on Ebola outbreak in west Africa http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/sta ... 0140808/en.

Confirmed, probable, and suspect cases and deaths from Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone, as of 16 Aug 2014: The total number of cases is subject to change due to ongoing reclassification, retrospective investigation, and availability of laboratory results. Data reported in the Disease Outbreak News are based on official information reported by Ministries of Health.

* Information from Liberia, throughout this update, is from 15 Aug 2014.

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******
[2] Sierra Leone: SOS call for overseas doctors & nurses
Date: 19 Aug 2014
Source: British Red Cross [edited]
http://www.redcross.org.uk/About-us/Job ... a-response


Doctors and nurses are urgently needed in response to a request for the Red Cross movement to support the Ministry of Health in Sierra Leone, with the establishment of an Ebola virus disease isolation unit for the care and management of patients in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, ideally ... towards the end of August [2014] for an assignment of 4 weeks...

For further information, and how to apply, see URL above.

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[3] Liberia
Date: 19 Aug 2014
Source: Da Vibes, Dominica [edited]
http://dominicavibes.dm/liberian-ebola-patients-found


17 suspected EVD patients who went missing in Liberia after a health centre in the capital was attacked have been found, a minister has said. "They were traced, and finally they turned themselves in" at a treatment centre, Lewis Brown told the BBC. The Liberian information minister said the missing patients were now at the newly expanded treatment unit opened over the weekend at the John F Kennedy Memorial Medical Center in the capital, Monrovia... more

[A sunlit photo of a man taking a young girl out of the West Point health facility during the attack is at the URL above; but I question its authenticity, as the attack was said to have taken place late at night. - Mod.JW]


EVD medics in Liberia recovering
----------------------------
Date: 19 Aug 2014
Source: DA Vibes, Dominica [edited]
http://dominicavibes.dm/ebola-medics-in ... recovering

Three doctors in Liberia with EVD who started taking an experimental drug last Thu [14 Aug 2014] are showing remarkable signs of improvement, a minister says. ZMapp was 1st given earlier this month [August 2014] to 2 US aid workers who were flown home for treatment from Liberia... more

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[4] Nigeria
Date: 19 Aug 2014
Source: Linda Ikeji's blog [edited]
http://lindaikeji.blogspot.co.uk/2014/0 ... virus.html


Dr. Ameyo Stella Adadevoh, the Senior Consultant Physician and Endocrinologist who was one of the doctors who attended to Patrick Sawyer at First Consultant Hospital [Lagos] has died from the ebolavirus, which she contracted from Sawyer.

Dr. Ameyo died this afternoon Tue 19 Aug 2014 at the isolation unit of the Mainland Hospital in Lagos where she'd been quarantined. She died a hero because she was the doctor who refused to let Patrick Sawyer, the man who brought the ebolavirus to Nigeria, leave the First Consultant Hospital in Obalende, Lagos, when he attempted to leave. She saved many lives by doing this. Her death is so heartbreaking. She's survived by a son and her husband. May her beautiful soul rest in peace... Amen.

Nigeria ex Liberia: suspected contacts quarantined
-------------------------------------
Date: 19 Aug 2014
Source: Vanguard Nigeria [edited]
http://www.vanguardngr.com/2014/08/ebol ... discharged

[excerpt]
Two missionary workers and their driver have been quarantined at the Benue State University Teaching Hospital (BSUTH), in Makurdi, the Benue state capital, [Nigeria] on suspicion of infection with Ebola virus disease.

Chief Medical Director [CMD] of BSUTH, Professor Orkurga Malu, who disclosed this to newsmen in Makurdi, dispelled rumours that the quarantined persons were infected with the virus. Malu explained that Benue indigenes, who hitherto resided in Monrovia for a year where they engaged in missionary work, relocated from the Liberian capital in the wake of the EVD outbreak.

"There is no truth that some Benue indigenes from Monrovia, Liberia are victims of the deadly ebolavirus. What happened is that since some airlines have shut down operations to Liberia, the couple and their driver had to take a connecting flight from their base to Accra, Ghana where they stayed for a week before travelling to Nigeria."

While refusing to disclose the identity of the persons concerned, Malu said, on arrival in the state, they were quickly admitted in the hospital and have been kept under close observation. "They have not shown any symptoms of the disease because at every stage their temperature is checked and tested right from Monrovia before they boarded the plane to Ghana and then Nigeria. Since they came in here on Thu [14 Aug 2014], we have been testing them on a daily basis, and there is no evidence of temperature rise or any of the symptoms of the virus. So we are 99.9 percent sure that they do not have EVD. But just in the remotest case of 0.1 percent, we have kept them to ensure they do not have the disease," he stated. The CMD who urged the people of the state not to panic assured that the hospital has adequate facilities to cater for any victim of the virus.

http://www.vanguardngr.com/2014/08/ebol ... NCTXU.dpuf

[Since Liberia does not require visas from Nigerian nationals, and these passengers arrived from Ghana after a week's stay (where they were apparently not treated as possible contacts in view of their origin in Liberia), they must have had a Liberian entry stamp in their passports in order to have been flagged as coming from Liberia. This episode emphasizes the importance of immigration staff detecting the original embarkation point of passengers even if they are not coming directly from one of the EVD-affected West African countries. - Mod.JW]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

******
[5] National Library of Medicine (NLM) resources
Date: 19 Aug 2014
From: Sarah McCord <sarah.mccord@mcphs.edu> [edited]


Forwarding on behalf of my colleagues at the US National Library of Medicine: This list seems to be the most efficient way to get this information into the hands of those who need it.

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) Emergency Access Initiative (EAI) has been activated to support healthcare professionals working on the EVD public health emergency in West Africa. The Emergency Access Initiative is provided on humanitarian grounds by the generosity of the participating publishers in partnership with the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Permitted use includes:

- Temporary collection replacement for library collections inaccessible due to specified disaster
- Emergency medical response for populations impacted by the specified event
- Public health response efforts for populations impacted by the specified event
- Health professionals and others providing medical treatment in affected areas

Prohibited use of the content available from the Emergency Access Initiative site includes any use not in support of the specified disaster event, and specifically prohibits use related to commercial gain, commercial document delivery, or downloading for communal or future use. For access to biomedical literature outside of the permitted uses, contact your local medical library.

The EAI is a collaborative partnership between NLM and participating publishers to provide free access to full-text from over 650 biomedical journals and over 4000 reference books and online databases to healthcare professionals and libraries affected by disasters. It serves as a temporary collection replacement and/or supplement for libraries affected by disasters that need to continue to serve medical staff and affiliated users. It is also intended for medical personnel responding to the specified disaster. EAI is not an open access collection. It is only intended for those affected by the disaster or assisting the affected population. If you know of a library or organization involved in healthcare efforts in response to the EVD outbreak, please let them know of this service. EAI was activated 4 times in the past, including following the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic in Haiti, flooding in Pakistan and the earthquake and tsunami in Japan.

NLM thanks the numerous participating publishers for their generous support of this initiative: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Chemical Society, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists, ASM Press, B.C. Decker, BMJ, EBSCOHost, Elsevier, FA Davis, Mary Ann Liebert, Massachusetts Medical Society, McGraw-Hill, Merck Publishing, Oxford University Press, People's Medical Publishing House, Springer, University of Chicago Press, Wiley and Wolters Kluwer.

Resources on EVD
-----------------------
NLM has several other resources that will be helpful for people working on EVD:
- Articles in PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=ebola
- Ebola (for the general public): http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ebola.html
- International health (for the general public): http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/inte ... ealth.html

For questions regarding these resources, please e-mail <custserv@nlm.nih.gov> or call 1.888.346.3656 in the USA, or 301.594.5983 internationally.

--
Sarah K. McCord, MLIS
Associate Director of Information Literacy Services, Associate Professor
Library and Learning Resources
MCPHS University
Boston MA
<sarah.mccord@mcphs.edu>

******
[6] Prevention

AIRLINES
19 Aug 2014: Air links should be maintained with EVD-hit regions in West Africa that need connections to the outside world, the International Air Transport Association [IATA] said after more carriers put flights on hold... more
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-08-1 ... tions.html

ARGENTINA
19 Aug 2014: The local Pilots Association ... has decided that bearing in mind that there are not clear instructions from the Sanitary Authorities as to the measures and actions to be met with by the pilots in relation to the vessels coming from infected areas with Ebola [virus disease], the pilots companies rendering pilotage services in the River Plate ... decided that their pilots will not board any vessel coming from the infected areas (Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) until 30 days has elapsed since the vessel sailed from last port of the infected areas by the time they should board the vessel for pilotage... more
http://www.hellenicshippingnews.com/arg ... tion-ebola

CAMEROON
18 Aug 2014: Cameroon has closed all its land, sea and air borders with Nigeria in a move to help prevent the spread of the Ebola virus disease, the government spokesman told AFP Mon 18 Aug 2014. "Our thinking is that it is better to act preventively rather than have to heal" later those who may fall ill, said Issa Tchiroma Bakary, who is Cameroon's communications minister. No cases of EVD have been recorded so far in Cameroon, which shares a nearly 2000-km (1240-mile) long border with Nigeria, where the virus has claimed 4 lives with about a dozen people infected.
http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news ... a-outbreak

GERMANY
See How Berlin is Prepping For EVD Patients
18 Aug 2014: A Berlin hospital with a specialized isolation unit drills its procedures for taking in an EVD patient.
http://time.com/3111797/see-how-berlin- ... a-patients

ICAO
18 Aug 2014: The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO): Joint Statement on Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) Outbreak
http://www.icao.int/Newsroom/Pages/join ... break.aspx

INDIA
18 Aug 2014: Kolkata sex workers to stay away from African customers
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city ... 376934.cms

SENEGAL
19 Aug 2014: As the ebolavirus continues to spread in West Africa, Senegal's doctors are taking steps to protect its border with Guinea. But there [in Senegal] health services are limited, and many rely on traditional healers for protection. Local preference for herbalists is hindering the work of health workers. Al Jazeera's Nicolas Haque reports from the Senegalese border town of Kedougou near Guinea. [video]
http://www.aljazeera.com/video/africa/2 ... 97844.html

NEW ZEALAND
19 Aug 2014: New Zealand is prepared for EVD: Public health officers are being given additional powers to hold aeroplanes and ships at the border if there is a sufficient concern that a person on board is infected with the ebolavirus, says Associate Health Minister Jo Goodhew... more
http://livenews.co.nz/2014/08/19/ensuri ... E9cpP.dpuf

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[7] False alarms and other news items

SOUTH AFRICA
18 Aug 2014: South African man tests negative for ebolavirus
http://www.dispatchlive.co.za/gen/south ... -for-ebola

SPAIN
19 Aug 2014: Inhabitant from Baracaldo, Basque region, Spain, in Bilbao hospital suspected of EVD actually has malaria. He had just returned from a trip to Sierra Leone.
http://www.franceinfo.fr/actu/monde/art ... bao-552649 [in French]

[Related items]:

SIERRA LEONE
19 Aug 2014: the agricultural minister has said the EVD outbreak is having a severe impact on the economy, as 66 percent of people were farmers, and agriculture accounted for 46 percent of GDP and 25 percent of all exports. "We're expecting devastating effects not only on the labour, but we're also talking about farms being abandoned by people running away from the epicentres," Joseph Sam Sesay told the BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-28852384.

GORILLAS
18 Aug 2014: EVD could have a devastating effect on Africa's gorilla population, researchers have warned. They say the virus has already affected primates and caused major changes in the way they reproduce. It has even broken up groups and forced infected animals out of their families. The disease can influence reproductive potential, immigration and social dynamics, researchers say. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/ ... z3ArAEok1J. - Mod.JW

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/8854.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>
Birgitt
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Ebola - Liberia verhängt nächtliche Ausgangssperre

Beitragvon Birgitt » 20.08.2014 19:22

Liberia verhängt wegen der Ebola-Epidemie eine nächtliche Ausgangssperre. Wie Präsidentin Ellen Johnson Sirleaf in einer Rundfunkansprache ankündigte, soll die Ausgangssperre ab heute jede Nacht von 21.00 Uhr bis 06.00 Uhr gelten. Außerdem stellten die Behörden zwei ganze Stadtviertel unter Quarantäne, davon eines in der Hauptstadt Monrovia.

Nächtliche Ausgangssperre in Liberia
20.08.2014 - tagesschau

Gruß
Birgitt
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Ebola in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 21.08.2014 13:16

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (133): WHO, NIGERIA, LIBERIA, CDC, MORE
*************************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
[1] WHO update
[2] Nigeria
[3] Liberia: curfew, violence
[4] CDC, USA resources
[5] WFPHA -AFPHA Statement on Ebola Outbreak
[6] Miscellaneous


*****
[1] WHO update
Date:
Source: WHO Disease outbreak news [edited]
http://www.who.int/csr/don/2014_08_20_ebola/en/


Total confirmed, probable, and suspect cases and deaths from Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone, as of 18 Aug 2014: Cases 2473 Deaths 1350.

Between 17-18 August 2014, a total of 221 new cases of Ebola virus disease [EVD] (laboratory-confirmed, probable, and suspect cases) as well as 106 deaths were reported from Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.
[clip]

In the current outbreak, the majority of Ebola virus disease cases are a result of human-to-human transmission and failure to apply appropriate infection prevention and control measures in home care, some clinical settings, and in burial rituals. It is important to understand that EVD is not an airborne disease. Individuals may become infected as a result of contact with the bodily fluids (vomit, diarrhoea, sputum, blood, etc.) from persons who are confirmed to have EVD or who have died from EVD.

Companies bringing goods and services to the affected countries are at low risk for exposure to EVD and WHO, under the International Health Regulations, encourages companies and organizations to continue providing these necessary supplies.

Countries around the world continue to engage in active surveillance for cases of EVD. Reports have been received by WHO of suspected cases and systematic verification is underway in a number of countries to confirm whether these are actual EVD cases. Overall, these reports are a positive sign that surveillance is working and countries are stepping up their preparedness to respond. As of today, no cases have been confirmed outside Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, or Sierra Leone...

WHO does not recommend any travel or trade restrictions be applied except in cases where individuals have been confirmed or are suspected of being infected with EVD or where individuals have had contact with cases of EVD. (Contacts do not include properly-protected health-care workers and laboratory staff.) Temporary recommendations from the Emergency Committee with regard to actions to be taken by countries can be found at:
IHR Emergency Committee on Ebola outbreak in west Africa

[Table] Confirmed, probable, and suspect cases and deaths from Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone, as of 18 Aug 2014: Total Cases 2473 Deaths 1350

The total number of cases is subject to change due to ongoing reclassification, retrospective investigation, and availability of laboratory results. Data reported in the Disease Outbreak News are based on official information reported by Ministries of Health.

--
Communicated by
ProMED-mail Corr. Marianne Hopp

*******
[2] Nigeria
Date: 20 Aug 2014
From: Naji.com [edited]
http://www.naij.com/279243-new-ebola-case-lagos.html
The Minister of Health, Prof. Onyebuchi Chukwu, has dismissed reports that there are 5 fresh cases of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Lagos. He added that there was no evidence that discharged patients can transmit the disease.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>


Date: 20 Aug 2014
Source: Nigerian Eye [edited]
http://www.nigerianeye.com/2014/08/cure ... ected.html


Re-infection confusion
---------------------
A member of the World Health Organisation committee of experts on Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa, Prof. Victor Inem, has said a cured EVD victim could be re-infected with the same virus if fresh contact was made with carriers. He stated this on Wed [20 Aug 2014] at a one-day 'train the trainer' workshop on EVD prevention and control organised by the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital for the medical stakeholders. Speaking on the overview of the EVD Outbreak in West Africa Sub-Region, he said "It is very possible for a cured victim to re-contract the virus when he brings himself closer again with sufferers through sex, their other body fluids, eating of some animals which are reservoirs of the virus or through processes of burning victims."

[This is a misunderstanding. Recovered EVD patients are immune to re-infection. Recovered men may continue to secrete virus in their semen for a few weeks and infect their sex partners, unless they use condoms. - Mod.JW]

--
Communicated by
ProMED-mail
<www.promedmail.org>


*******
[3] Liberia: curfew, violence
Date: 20 Aug 2014
Source: NY Times [edited]
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/21/world ... 54556&_r=0

Liberian authorities introduced a nationwide curfew on Tue [19 Aug 2014] and put the West Point neighbourhood under quarantine to curb the spread of the disease.

Police in the Liberian capital [Monrovia] fired live rounds and tear gas on Wed [20 Aug 2014] to disperse a stone-throwing crowd trying to break an EVD quarantine imposed on their neighbourhood, as the death toll from the epidemic in West Africa hit 1350. In the sprawling oceanfront West Point neighbourhood of Monrovia, at least 4 people were injured in clashes with security forces, witnesses said. It was unclear whether anyone was wounded by the gunfire, though a Reuters photographer saw a young boy with his leg largely severed just above the ankle. "The soldiers are using live rounds," said army spokesman Dessaline Allison, adding: "The soldiers applied the rules of engagement. They did not fire on peaceful citizens. There will be medical reports if (an injury) was from bullet wounds."

[Were they police or soldiers? - Mod.JW]
--
Communicated by
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

*******
[4] CDC, USA resources
CDC Podcast (audio)
-----------------------
Date: 20 Aug 2014
Source: CDC, USA [edited]
http://www2c.cdc.gov/podcasts/player.asp?f=8633631


Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with EVD Virus Disease
------------------------------------------
Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease. Created: 8/19/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/19/2014. Series Name: Emerging Infectious Diseases.
More info on this topic at source URL.

--
Date: 20 Aug 2014
Source: CDC, USA [edited]
http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/hcp/enviro ... itals.html

Interim Guidance for Environmental Infection Control in Hospitals for Ebola Virus

--
Communicated by
ProMED-mail
<www.promedmail.org>


*******
[5] WFPHA AFPHA (World Federation of Public Health Associations-African Federation of Public Health Associations) Statement on Ebola Outbreak
http://www.wfpha.org/images/news/joint _WFPHA AFPHA_Statement_on_Ebola_Outbreak.pdf

--
Communicated by
ProMED-mail
<www.promedmail.org>


*******
[6] Miscelleneous

USA (California)

-------------
20 Aug 2014: Northern California patient tested for possible EVD exposure. Blood samples from a patient at a Northern California hospital, who is suspected of having been exposed to the deadly ebolavirus, will be tested by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, officials said.
http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/08/ ... W820140820

GERMANY
19 Aug 2014: EVD Scare as Nigerian Woman Showing Symptoms of Killer Disease Faints in Jobcentre [in Berlin] Forcing 600 People into Quarantine
http://www.amren.com/news/2014/08/germa ... quarantine

MALAWI
11 Aug 2014: In Malawi, health authorities said the government was taking measures to prevent the spread of the ebolavirus into the country, including airport screenings of international passengers, critics said they weren't doing enough... more
http://www.voanews.com/content/nurse-is ... 09916.html

TOURISM
19 Aug 2014: The outbreak of EVD in West Africa is hitting many African economies where they are most vulnerable -- the tourism industry -- as travelers reconsider trips to places as far away as Kenya and South Africa.
http://online.wsj.com/articles/ebola-vi ... 40102.html

[The ignorance of some tourists of the geography of their destinations reveals their deficient education. - Mod.JW]

VACCINE
-------
14 Aug 2014: Canada to donate 1000 doses. 1st Tests of Ebolavirus Vaccine Appear at Least a Month Away
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-08-1 ... o-who.html

DRUGS
-------
20 Aug 2014: Experimental EVD drugs needed for 'up to 30,000 people'
http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/08/ ... U220140820

*****
[7] False alarms

BRAZIL

15 Aug 2014: [Ministry denies reports on social media & Whatsapp of suspected or confirmed cases of EVD in Brazil, saying the risk of it occurring in Brazil is low, as the only affected countries are in Africa.]
http://portalsaude.saude.gov.br/index.p ... al/agencia saude/14265 ministerio desmente boatos sobre casos de ebola no brasil [in Portuguese]
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Re: Ebola - Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria

Beitragvon Alexander » 22.08.2014 10:58

Senegal macht Grenze zu Guinea dicht

Der Senegal hat wegen der Ebola-Epidemie die Grenze zu Guinea geschlossen. Südafrika lässt keine Menschen aus den vier betroffenen Ländern mehr ins Land. Das Mittel „ZMapp“ hat wohl auch Helfern in Liberia geholfen.

Die Ebola-Epidemie belastet zunehmend die Verkehrsverbindungen in Afrika. Erneut schloss der Senegal seine Grenzen zum Nachbarstaat Guinea, wie das Innenministerium am Donnerstagabend nach Angaben der senegalesischen Nachrichtenagentur APS mitteilte. Davon seien auch Flugzeuge und Schiffe betroffen, die aus Guinea, Sierra Leone und Liberia kämen. mehr...

Grüsse
Alexander
The one who follows the crowd will usually go no further than the crowd. Those who walk alone are likely to find themselves in places no one has ever been before.

... follow us on facebook - das Wüstenschiff auf Facebook
>>> Firmen, die Wüstenschiff-Aktionen in Afrika unterstützen
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Ebola in Westafrika

Beitragvon Birgitt » 22.08.2014 12:04

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - WEST AFRICA (134): AMERICANS CURED, MORE
**************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this posting:
[1] Americans cured
[2] Research funding
[3] Suspected cases
[4] Prevention


******
[1] Americans cured
Date: Thu 21 Aug 2014
Source: Washington Post [edited]
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morn ... -hospital/


2 Americans who contracted Ebola released from hospital
-------------------------------------------------------
American doctor Kent Brantly and North Carolina missionary Nancy Writebol, both of whom contracted Ebola while treating infected Liberian patients, have been released from an Atlanta [Georgia, USA] hospital. Writebol was discharged from Emory University Hospital on Tuesday [19 Aug 2014] and Brantly was released today [21 Aug 2014] ... [more]

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ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

******
[2] Research funding
Date: Thu 21 Aug 2014
Source: UK Collaborative on Development Sciences (UKCDS) [edited]
http://www.ukcds.org.uk/news-events/new ... ckle-ebola


A rapid research call on the spread of EVD has been announced, aiming to commission and complete research to combat the outbreak within 2 months. The Department for International Development and the Wellcome Trust are jointly funding the research under the GBP 6.5 million [about USD 10.8 million] Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) programme. Under-resourced health systems have been struggling to cope with the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the death toll has now reached over a 1000. The research will cover the management of the outbreak and might be in areas such as epidemiology, clinical management, ethics, diagnosis, disease control and prevention, health systems, and surveillance.

In a separate initiative, also announced today [21 Aug 2014], the Wellcome Trust has committed GBP 40 million [about USD 66.5 million] to the launch of the Developing Excellence in Leadership, Training and Science (DELTAS) Africa initiative. This is a long-term vision for developing a new generation of outstanding African health researchers to help tackle future challenges like the Ebola outbreak. The funding will be administered by the Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian Assistance (ELRHA). "The gravity of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa demands an urgent response," said Dr Jeremy Farrar, Director of the Wellcome Trust. "The Wellcome Trust is investing today in a package of research that can make a difference to Africa in the short, the medium and the long term."

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Research results will be too little, too late for this epidemic. One has to wonder whether those USD 77 million might not be better spent in the field trying to stop West African countries becoming failed states as a result of EVD, and the spread of EVD to richer countries which will end up spending much more than that to protect themselves. - Mod.JW]

******
[3] Suspected cases


Ireland

-------
21 Aug 2014: Tests are being carried out on the remains of a man who is said to have died after recently returning to Ireland from West Africa. A man in Ireland who medics suspect may have died from Ebola is believed to have recently returned from Sierra Leone, according to Sky sources. The suspected victim was named locally as a father of one, from the Doorin area, outside Mountcharles, County Donegal. The 43-year-old was visiting his large family [there] when he was taken ill, having previously been living in Dublin. Neighbours said he may have been receiving treatment for malaria when he died. His body is being kept at Letterkenny Hospital in isolation. It is not known where he had been receiving any treatment as an inpatient at a medical facility. One source said he had been working in the West African country for a telecommunications company and had returned within the last couple of weeks.
http://news.sky.com/story/1322708/suspe ... erra-leone

Viet Nam, Myanmar
-----------------
20 Aug 2014: Viet Nam and Myanmar are testing 3 patients for the deadly Ebola virus after they arrived in the Southeast Asian nations from Africa suffering fever, health officials said; 2 Nigerians were sent to Ho Chi Minh City's Tropical Diseases Hospital for isolation after they arrived in the city by plane, Viet Nam's health ministry said, adding that they did not have symptoms other than fever. Airline passengers sitting next to the pair -- who travelled to Viet Nam on Monday [18 Aug 2014] from Nigeria via Qatar -- have been advised to monitor their health.

In Myanmar, a 22-year-old local man was taken to hospital in Yangon after arriving at the city's main airport on Tuesday [19 Aug 2014]. The Myanmar Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention said he is believed to have returned from Guinea, having also travelled to Liberia, 2 of the countries worst hit by the Ebola outbreak. "Samples were sent to a WHO (World Health Organisation) recognised laboratory to check whether or not Ebola was present," the statement said. It added that 4 people who accompanied the man to hospital were also being kept under observation ... [more]
http://www.naharnet.com/stories/en/1439 ... -for-ebola

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
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[You can't be too careful in present circumstances. - Mod.JW]

******
[4] Prevention


South Africa

------------
21 Aug 2014: South Africa's health ministry said borders would be closed to all non-citizen travellers from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. South African nationals will be allowed to re-enter the country when returning from high-risk countries, but will undergo strict screening. All non-essential outgoing travel to the affected countries has been banned ... [more]
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-28879020

--
Communicated by:
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<promed@promedmail.org>
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